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Timing of surgery in premenopausal patients with breast cancer remains controversial. Angiogenesis is essential for tumour growth and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most potent angiogenic cytokines. We aimed to determine whether the study of VEGF in relation to the menstrual cycle could help further the understanding of this issue(More)
We aim to determine the clinical usefulness of pre-operative serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a predictor of outcome in patients undergoing curative resection for colorectal cancer. Serum VEGF was assayed by quantitative ELISA in 81 patients prior to curative resection for node-negative (n = 53) and node-positive (n = 28) disease. Median(More)
BACKGROUND Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes photosensitizers and light. Whereas PDT use in cancer treatment has been widely accepted, antimicrobial PDT (APDT) is still in its early stages of development. OBJECTIVES To study microbial killing in vitro using APDT. METHODS We used a combination of methylene blue and visible light, and a range of(More)
Neovascularization has been shown to be essential for the growth of solid tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important mediators of angiogenesis. This study was conducted to determine the significance of this cytokine as a tumor marker for staging colorectal cancer. Preoperative serum VEGF was measured in 108 colorectal(More)
INTRODUCTION There is growing evidence that heat shock proteins (HSPs), a family of stress-inducible proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Here, we systematically review the evidence behind this notion. METHODS A detailed literature search and extensive bibliographic review of literature relating to HSPs and(More)
The development of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has seen an enormous growth over the last hundred years since its inception by Potter in 1911. The technology has reached a level of maturity that it is now considered to be a field in its own right with a growing scientific community. The highest level of activity has been recorded over the last(More)
Epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of breast cancer in obligate ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) heterozygotes. We analyzed 100 samples from young breast cancer patients for mutations in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), the gene responsible for the autosomal recessive condition, A-T, to determine whether A-T heterozygosity predisposes such(More)
AIMS To develop an in vitro flat-bed perfusion biofilm model that could be used to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of topically applied treatments. METHODS AND RESULTS Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms were grown within continuously perfused cellulose matrices. Enumeration of the biofilm density and eluate was performed at(More)
This communication reports for the first time the direct utilisation of urine in MFCs for the production of electricity. Different conversion efficiencies were recorded, depending on the amount treated. Elements such as N, P, K can be locked into new biomass, thus removed from solution, resulting in recycling without environmental pollution.