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PMN are critical to innate immunity and are fundamental to antibacterial defense. To localize to sites of infection, PMN possess receptors that detect chemoattractant stimuli elicited at the site, such as chemokines, complement split products, or bioactive lipids. Signaling through these receptors stimulates chemotaxis toward the site of infection but also(More)
Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)/cachectin is a multifunctional cytokine that has effects in inflammation, sepsis, lipid and protein metabolism, haematopoiesis, angiogenesis and host resistance to parasites and malignancy. TNF-alpha was first described in activated macrophages, but certain mouse or rat mast cell populations (reviewed in refs 4,5)(More)
We studied IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma secretion by splenocytes and the plasma levels of different isotypes of antibodies against various antigens of Trypanosoma congolense in highly susceptible BALB/c and relatively resistant C57BL/6 mice during the early course of infection with T. congolense. The patterns of appearance of cytokine spotforming cells in the(More)
Research suggests that maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Current theories suggest that inflammatory mediators including cytokines and chemokines may underlie the increased risk of these disorders in humans. For example, elevated maternal(More)
The C chemokine lymphotactin (Lptn) has been reported to act specifically on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, but not monocytes. However, the chemotactic effect of Lptn on other types of hematopoietic cells has not been well studied. In this study we investigated (i) the chemotactic influences of Lptn on T and B lymphocytes,(More)
Mast cell-associated mediators are generally classified into two groups: the preformed mediators, which are stored in the cells' cytoplasmic granules and are released upon exocytosis, and the newly synthesized mediators, which are not stored but are produced and secreted only after appropriate stimulation of the cell. We now report that tumor necrosis(More)
Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) is an environmental contaminant known to favor airway inflammation likely through up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The present study was designed to characterize its effects toward interleukin-8 (IL-8), a well-established pulmonary inflammatory cytokine. In primary human macrophages, BP was shown to induce IL-8 expression at(More)
By in situ hybridization, 44-100% of the blood eosinophils from five patients with hypereosinophilia and four normal subjects exhibited intense hybridization signals for TNF-alpha mRNA. TNF-alpha protein was detectable by immunohistochemistry in blood eosinophils of hypereosinophilic subjects, and purified blood eosinophils from three atopic donors(More)
The benefits of management of hearing disability, in particular by provision of a hearing aid, are traditionally assessed by the percentage improvement in performance on a speech identification task. To provide precise and stable results, such procedures require more time than is available in most clinical settings. In any stressed performance, e.g. an(More)
Septicemia and endotoxemia initiated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are relatively common in suckling and weaned piglets. Maternal milk is a source of both nutrition and immune protection for piglets. Passive transfer of colostral antibodies is necessary for protection of neonatal piglets against diseases, but the concentration of immunoglobulins in(More)