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Ocean acidification in response to rising atmospheric CO2 partial pressures is widely expected to reduce calcification by marine organisms. From the mid-Mesozoic, coccolithophores have been major calcium carbonate producers in the world's oceans, today accounting for about a third of the total marine CaCO3 production. Here, we present laboratory evidence(More)
In this paper we introduce a fully Bayesian approach to sample size determination in clinical trials. In contrast to the usual Bayesian decision theoretic methodology, which assumes a single decision maker, our approach recognises the existence of three decision makers, namely: the pharmaceutical company conducting the trial, which decides on its size; the(More)
Current practice for sample size computations in clinical trials is largely based on frequentist or classical methods. These methods have the drawback of requiring a point estimate of the variance of the treatment effect and are based on arbitrary settings of type I and II errors. They also do not directly address the question of achieving the best balance(More)
PURPOSE To establish whether it is possible to improve orbicularis oculi muscle function in the eyelids of patients with a chronic seventh cranial nerve palsy by using transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the point at which electrical stimulation induces a functional blink. METHODS Ten subjects (one woman, nine men) aged 36 to 76 with chronic,(More)
The genomic framework that enables corals to adjust to unfavourable conditions is crucial for coral reef survival in a rapidly changing climate. We have explored the striking intraspecific variability in the expression of coral pigments from the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family to elucidate the genomic basis for the plasticity of stress responses(More)
A line scan imaging system which provides a facility for comprehensive measurement and analysis of eyelid motion in human subjects is described. The device obtains parasagittal line images of the eye and eyelids by focusing an image of the eye onto a linear 256-element CCD array. Line images are acquired and digitized at a rate of 200 per second and stored(More)
The behavioural Bayes approach to sample size determination for clinical trials assumes that the number of subsequent patients switching to a new drug from the current drug depends on the strength of the evidence for efficacy and safety that was observed in the clinical trials. The optimal sample size is the one which maximises the expected net benefit of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Small-vessel knock is a recently reported Doppler ultrasound finding that has been identified in patients with cerebral ischemia. It has been hypothesized that knock-type signals are linked to the presence of either small-vessel occlusion or wall motion. The aim of this study was to investigate the origins of "knock-type" signals by(More)
1 SUMMARY When a new clinical treatment is being considered trials are carried out to estimate the increase in performance which i s l i k ely to result if the new treatment were to replace the treatment in current use. An important feature of the analysis in this paper is that the nal decision whether to use the new treatment is taken by potential users(More)