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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors that differentiate into such lineages as bone, fat, cartilage and stromal cells that support haemopoiesis. Bone marrow MSCs can also contribute to cardiac repair, although the mechanism for this is unclear. Here, we examine the potential of MSCs from different(More)
The immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) make them particularly attractive to manipulate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). So far, the experience of using MSC to treat GVHD is limited to a few cases, controversial results come from preclinical models and several issues remain to be clarified. The present studies were designed to(More)
Interferon-gamma receptor ligand-binding chain (IFN-gammaR1) or signaling chain (IFN-gammaR2) deficiency, like interleukin 12 receptor beta1 chain (IL-12Rbeta1) deficiency, predispose to severe infections due to poorly virulent mycobacteria and salmonella. A child with bacille Calmette-Guérin and Salmonella enteritidis infection was investigated. Mutations(More)
Exploitation of the ability of stem cells to protect damaged neuronal tissue may be a more viable strategy than cell replacement for repair of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study we assessed the capacity of human umbilical cord blood (hUCB)-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to protect and promote regeneration of axotomised neurons within(More)
The immunogenetic basis of severe infections caused by bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine and environmental mycobacteria in humans remains largely unknown. We describe 18 patients from several generations of 12 unrelated families who were heterozygous for 1 to 5 overlapping IFNGR1 frameshift small deletions and a wild-type IFNGR1 allele. There were 12(More)
Immune and inflammatory human renal disease is associated with heavy mononuclear cell infiltration. The trafficking of these cells to extravascular sites is directed by local production of chemokines. Fractalkine is the first described cell-surface anchored chemokine and has potent mononuclear cell-directed adhesion and chemotactic properties. The purpose(More)
Ragoussis and co-workers (Genomics 4:301) previously described a class I HLA gene (now designated HLA-J) that maps to within 50 kb of HLA-A. The nucleotide sequences of three HLA-J alleles are reported here. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of HLA-J alleles shows this gene is more related to HLA-G, A, and H than to HLA-B, C, E, and F. All four alleles(More)
The resolution of immune responses is characterized by extensive apoptosis of activated T cells. However, to generate and maintain immunological memory, some antigen-specific T cells must survive and revert to a resting G0/G1 state. Cytokines that bind to the common gamma chain of the IL-2 receptor promote the survival of T cell blasts, but also induce(More)
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may be derived from a variety of tissues, with human umbilical cord (UC) providing an abundant and noninvasive source. Human UC-MSCs share similar in vitro immunosuppressive properties as MSCs obtained from bone marrow and cord blood. However, the mechanisms and cellular interactions used by MSCs to control immune responses(More)
Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a transmembrane molecule with a CX3C chemokine domain attached to an extracellular mucin stalk which can induce both adhesion and migration of leucocytes. Mononuclear cell infiltration at renal tubular sites and associated tubular epithelial cell damage are key events during acute renal inflammation following renal allograft(More)