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We present a protocol for sending data over a common class of low-bandwidth covert channels. Covert channels exist in most communications systems and allow individuals to communicate truly undetectably. However, covert channels are seldom used due to their complexity. Our protocol is both practical and secure against attack by powerful adversaries. We(More)
The effect of diltiazem-induced hypotension on intracranial pressure (ICP) was studied in dogs with normal and elevated ICP. Eight dogs were anesthetized with intravenous pentobarbital, intubated, and ventilated with N2O:O2. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central(More)
Bolus injections of succinylcholine (1.5 mg/kg) significantly increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in cats under normal conditions from control levels of 8 +/- 1 mm Hg to 16 +/- 3 mm Hg (+/- SEM, P less than 0.01), and in the presence of artificially increased ICP from control levels of 27 +/- 1 mm Hg to 47 +/- 4 mm Hg (P less than 0.01). These(More)
The effect of atracurium on intracranial pressure (ICP) was investigated in six cats with normal and increased ICP. The cats were anaesthetized with intraperitoneal pentobarbitone (33 mg . kg-1), acepromazine (0.6 mg . kg-1) and incremental fentanyl (p.r.n. approximately equal to 20 micrograms . kg-1), intubated, and ventilated with nitrous oxide in oxygen.(More)
The effect of vecuronium on intracranial pressure (ICP) was investigated in six cats with normal and increased ICP. Cats were anaesthetized with pentobarbitone 33 mg kg-1 i.p. and acepromazine 0.6 mg kg-1 i.p., the trachea was intubated, and the lungs ventilated with nitrous oxide in oxygen. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), twitch response and(More)
The effect of tetrodotoxin-induced hypotension on intracranial pressure (ICP) was investigated in cats with normal and artificially increased ICP. Cats were anesthetized with intraperitoneal pentobarbital (25-30 mg/kg), intubated, and ventilated with nitrous oxide in oxygen. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and pulmonary arterial pressure(More)