John Gerry Kenna

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An improved understanding of mechanisms that underlie drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is required to enable design of drugs that have minimal potential to cause this adverse reaction in man. Available evidence suggests DILI arises in susceptible patients because of an imbalance between chemical insults (which are an inherent property of certain drugs(More)
INTRODUCTION HepaRG is a unique cell line showing a great plasticity, which differentiates to both canaliculae-like and hepatocyte-like cells. The long-term stability of key cell functions, for example, the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities, in culture is especially useful in drug metabolism, disposition and toxicity studies. AREAS(More)
AIMS The signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects cells against oxidative stress and activates NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor that regulates antioxidant genes. We sought to establish whether H2S requires Nrf2 to protect against oxidative stress, and whether activation of Nrf2 by H2S involves antagonism of Kelch-like(More)
The human bile salt export pump (BSEP) is a membrane protein expressed on the canalicular plasma membrane domain of hepatocytes, which mediates active transport of unconjugated and conjugated bile salts from liver cells into bile. BSEP activity therefore plays an important role in bile flow. In humans, genetically inherited defects in BSEP expression or(More)
Drug toxicity to T-antigen-immortalized human liver epithelial (THLE) cells stably transfected with plasmid vectors that encoded human cytochrome P450s 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, or 3A4, or an empty plasmid vector (THLE-Null), was investigated. An automated screening platform, which included 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) vehicle, 2.7% bovine serum in the culture(More)
Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IADRs) in humans can result in a broad range of clinically significant toxicities leading to attrition during drug development as well as postlicensing withdrawal or labeling. IADRs arise from both drug and patient related mechanisms and risk factors. Drug related risk factors, resulting from parent compound or(More)
The normal metabolism of drugs can generate metabolites that have intrinsic chemical reactivity towards cellular molecules, and therefore have the potential to alter biological function and initiate serious adverse drug reactions. Here, we present an assessment of the current approaches used for the evaluation of chemically reactive metabolites. We also(More)
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of failed drug development, withdrawal and restricted usage. Therefore screening assays which aid selection of candidate drugs with reduced propensity to cause DILI are required. We have investigated the toxicity of 144 drugs, 108 of which caused DILI, using assays identified in the literature as having some(More)
The ability of food proteins to resist digestion in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) correlates with allergenic potential. The purpose of the current investigations was to determine whether this association is due solely to the failure of unstable proteins to elicit an immune response when administered orally. We have examined immune responses induced in(More)
5-Oxoproline (5-OP; pyroglutamate) is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the endogenous tripeptide glutathione and has been seen to be elevated in the biofluids and tissues of rats following the administration of glutathione-depleting hepatotoxic xenobiotics such as acetaminophen (paracetamol), bromobenzene and ethionine. As 5-OP is a potential(More)