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Members of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases control many aspects of cellular interactions during development, including axon guidance. Here, we demonstrate that EphB2 also regulates postnatal synaptic function in the mammalian CNS. Mice lacking the EphB2 intracellular kinase domain showed wild-type levels of LTP, whereas mice lacking the entire(More)
BACKGROUND Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which(More)
The molecular underpinnings of exploration and its link to learning and memory remain poorly understood. Here we show that inducible, modest overexpression of neuronal calcium sensor 1 (Ncs1) selectively in the adult murine dentate gyrus (DG) promotes a specific form of exploratory behavior. The mice also display a selective facilitation of long-term(More)
We investigated signaling between individual nerve terminals and perisynaptic Schwann cells, the teloglial cells that cover neuromuscular junctions. When deprived of neuronal activity in vivo, either by motor nerve transection or tetrodotoxin injection, perisynaptic Schwann cells rapidly up-regulated glial fibrillary acidic protein. Addition of(More)
There is growing evidence that NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus mediates the synaptic plasticity that underlies spatial learning and memory. LTP deficiencies correlate well with spatial memory deficits and LTP enhancements may improve spatial memory. In addition, LTP deficiencies are associated with abnormal place(More)
The intracellular signaling targets used by mammalian axon guidance receptors to organize the nervous system in vivo are unclear. The Nck1 and Nck2 SH2/SH3 adaptors (collectively Nck) can couple phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signals to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and are therefore candidates for linking guidance cues to the regulatory machinery of the(More)
Nestin is expressed in many different progenitors during development including those of the CNS, heart, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The adult expression is mainly restricted to the subependymal zone and dentate gyrus of the brain, the neuromuscular junction, and renal podocytes. In addition, this intermediate filament protein has served as a marker of(More)
Crustacean and insect neuromuscular junctions typically include numerous small synapses, each of which usually contains one or more active zones, which possess voltage-sensitive calcium channels and are specialized for release of synaptic vesicles. Strength of transmission (the number of quantal units released per synapse by a nerve impulse) varies greatly(More)
Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is an endocytic adaptor protein that plays a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the ligand-induced internalization of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) (Metzler et al., 2003). In the present study, we investigated the role of HIP1 in NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function by analyzing NMDA-dependent transport and NMDA-induced(More)
Calcium measurements in the presynaptic terminal are essential in the investigation of mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter release. To enhance the genetic analysis of secretory mechanisms, we have developed Ca2+ imaging techniques for Drosophila larval motor nerve terminals. We studied Ca2+ signals in "big" (type Ib) and "small" (type Is) boutons that(More)