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Members of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases control many aspects of cellular interactions during development, including axon guidance. Here, we demonstrate that EphB2 also regulates postnatal synaptic function in the mammalian CNS. Mice lacking the EphB2 intracellular kinase domain showed wild-type levels of LTP, whereas mice lacking the entire(More)
BACKGROUND Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which(More)
Perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs) envelop axonal terminals and are physiologically distinct from the nearby myelinating Schwann cells (MSCs), which surround the same innervating motor axons. PSCs have special functions at the neuromuscular synapse, where they detect and can modulate neurotransmitter release. Although PSCs are similar to non-myelinating(More)
Current treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis aim to either promote bone formation or inhibit bone resorption. The C1 conjugate drug represents a new treatment approach by chemically linking the antiresorptive compound alendronate (ALN) with the anabolic agent prostanoid EP4 receptor agonist (EP4a) through a linker molecule (LK) to form a conjugate(More)
Incretins are endogenous peptides released from the gastrointestinal tract into the circulation during a meal that potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. At present, there are two established incretins: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and the truncated glucagon-like peptides (tGLPs), which are now being investigated for use in(More)
The molecular underpinnings of exploration and its link to learning and memory remain poorly understood. Here we show that inducible, modest overexpression of neuronal calcium sensor 1 (Ncs1) selectively in the adult murine dentate gyrus (DG) promotes a specific form of exploratory behavior. The mice also display a selective facilitation of long-term(More)
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), measured by fluorescence intensity-based microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging, has been used to estimate the size of oligomers formed by the M(2) muscarinic cholinergic receptor. The approach is based on the relationship between the apparent FRET efficiency within an oligomer of specified size (n) and(More)
We investigated signaling between individual nerve terminals and perisynaptic Schwann cells, the teloglial cells that cover neuromuscular junctions. When deprived of neuronal activity in vivo, either by motor nerve transection or tetrodotoxin injection, perisynaptic Schwann cells rapidly up-regulated glial fibrillary acidic protein. Addition of(More)
Nestin is expressed in many different progenitors during development including those of the CNS, heart, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The adult expression is mainly restricted to the subependymal zone and dentate gyrus of the brain, the neuromuscular junction, and renal podocytes. In addition, this intermediate filament protein has served as a marker of(More)
The intracellular signaling targets used by mammalian axon guidance receptors to organize the nervous system in vivo are unclear. The Nck1 and Nck2 SH2/SH3 adaptors (collectively Nck) can couple phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signals to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and are therefore candidates for linking guidance cues to the regulatory machinery of the(More)