Conditioned flavor aversions (CFA) are acquired by anesthetized rats but effects of various anesthetics on acquisition of aversions for separate odor and taste components are unknown. In Experiment 1, rats drank tomato juice and then were tranquilized with "Innovar-Vet" or "Rompun" before receiving injections of lithium chloride. Neither drug interfered… (More)
Changes in body weight and taste aversion in the learned helplessness paradigm were examined. In Experiment 1, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats drank saccharin or a control solution, followed by either 100 inescapable shocks or simple restraint. Rats were weighted daily and were tested for saccharin aversion two days after the stress session. Shocked rats… (More)
When an odor conditioned stimulus (CS) precedes illness (unconditioned stimulus; UCS), rats acquire relatively weak odor aversions. Conversely, when a compound odor-taste (flavor) CS precedes illness, rats acquire robust aversions both to the odor and to the taste components of a compound flavor CS. Thus, tastes potentiate odor-illness aversions during… (More)
Potentiation of odor by taste in rats was tested in a variety of situations. In three experiments, almond odor and saccharin taste were presented either as a single conditioned stimulus (CS) or as a compound CS and followed by either toxic lithium chloride or footshock. Extinction tests with the almond and saccharin components were then given. In single… (More)
Three experiments were designed to study the sensory properties of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) in the rat. In Experiment 1, a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was produced to 3%, 6% or 9% EtOH. None of these aversions generalized to any of the 4 basic tastants. However, rats in the 6% and 9% EtOH groups did generalize the CTA to a mixture of sucrose-QHCl but not… (More)
The present experiments examined the reinforcing effects of an ethanol (EtOH) unconditioned stimulus (UCS) on conditioned flavor preferences in food-deprived rats and in water-deprived rats. In Experiment 1A food and water deprived animals received distinct conditioning treatments. One half of the animals were intragastrically intubated with EtOH (0.5… (More)
When either taste or odor alone was followed by poison, rats acquired a strong aversion for the taste but not for odor, especially if poison was delayed. When odor-taste combinations were poisoned, however, odor aversions were potentiated, as if odor could gain the enduring memorial property of taste by associative contiguity.
Methoxyflurane (2,2-dichloro-1,1-difluro-ethyl methyl ether; Metofane) is a potent general inhalation anesthetic that is well-suited for small animal surgery. Methoxyflurane is particularly attractive as an anesthetic agent in neurological stereotaxic surgery, because methoxyflurane does not markedly attenuate the rate of anterograde or retrograde transport… (More)