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We investigated changes across the adult life span of the fingertip forces used to grip and lift objects and their possible causes. Grip force, relative safety margin (grip force exceeding the minimum to avoid slip, as a fraction of slip force), and skin slipperiness increased beginning at age 50 years. Skin slipperiness explained relative safety margin(More)
This experiment addressed the often-posed theory that age-related declines in manual dexterity result from diminished tactile function. We measured the time 'young' subjects (n=33; mean=45 years) and 'old' subjects (n=33; mean=74 years) needed to grip (thumb and index finger), lift, and transport a small metal sphere when vision was permitted and when(More)
The effects of varying gaze direction on perceptions of the upper limb kinesthetic coordinate system axes and of the median plane location were studied in nine subjects with no history of neuromuscular disorders. In two experiments, six subjects aligned the unseen forearm to the trunk-fixed anterior-posterior (a/p) axis and earth-fixed vertical while gazing(More)
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