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AIMS Chemical inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) are a useful tool in defining the role of individual CYPs involved in drug metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the selectivity and rank the order of potency of a range of isoform-selective CYP inhibitors and to compare directly the effects of these inhibitors in human and rat hepatic(More)
1. A number of compounds have been examined for their ability to inhibit tolbutamide hydroxylase activity in human liver microsomes (control value at a substrate concentration of 150 microM being 0.27 +/- 0.12 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein; mean +/- s.d.; n = 7). 2. IC50 (concentration of inhibitor producing 50% inhibition) values were determined for a range of(More)
Four antimycotic drugs, the azoles ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole, and the allylamine terbinafine have been studied for their effect on the metabolism of cyclosporin by human liver microsomes (n = 3) in vitro. Ketoconazole caused marked inhibition of cyclosporin hydroxylase (to metabolites M17 and M1) with IC50 and Ki values of 0.24 +/- 0.01 and(More)
In this paper we describe the kinetics of formation of 1-methylxanthine (1-MX), 3-methylxanthine (3-MX) and 1,3-dimethyluric acid (1,3-DMU) from theophylline in human liver microsomal incubations and use the selective inhibitor approach to define the role of the individual cytochrome P450s (CYP) in each pathway. A biphasic model fitted the data best for the(More)
Two antimycotic agents, the azole ketoconazole and the allylamine terbinafine, have been examined for their effects on the metabolism of tolbutamide, ethinyloestradiol, cyclosporin and ethoxycoumarin by human liver microsomes (n = 4) in vitro. Ketoconazole caused marked inhibition of all enzyme activities with mean IC50 values (concentration producing 50%(More)
OBJECTIVE The most important hepatic enzyme involved in the metabolism of protease inhibitors is cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Ritonavir (RIT) is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and inhibits saquinavir (SQV) metabolism in healthy volunteers. In this study we investigated the kinetics of SQV when administered alone and in combination with RIT in HIV-infected(More)
Clinical pharmacokinetic studies of antiretrovirals require accurate and precise measurement of plasma drug concentrations. Here we describe a simple, fast and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method for determination of the commonly used protease inhibitors (PI) amprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, lopinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and the non-nucleoside reverse(More)
Patients taking oral contraceptive steroids (OCS) are known to suffer contraceptive failure while taking anticonvulsants such as phenobarbitone, phenytoin and carbamazepine. We have studied the single dose kinetics of ethinyloestradiol (EE2); 50 micrograms, and levonorgestrel (Ng); 250 micrograms in groups of women before and 8-12 weeks after starting(More)
A number of different progestogens, levonorgestrel (LNG), norethisterone (NET), gestodene (GSD), desogestrel (DG) and norgestimate (NORG) are used in combination with the oestrogen ethinyloestradiol (EE2) in oral contraceptive steroid preparations. All the progestogens are acetylenic steroids and previous studies have indicated the potential of acetylenic(More)
Intracellular accumulation of the protease inhibitors (PIs) saquinavir (SQV), ritonavir (RTV), and indinavir (IDV) was determined in 50 human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Following extraction, PIs were quantified by mass spectrometry. Paired plasma and intracellular samples were collected over a full dosing interval from patients (13 on SQV, 6(More)