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John Zachman introduced a framework for information systems architecture (SA) that has been widely adopted by systems analysts and database designers. It provides a taxonomy for relating the concepts that describe the real world to the concepts that describe an information system and its implementation. The ISA framework has a simple elegance that makes it(More)
Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday has been actively analyzing and documenting the interactions between syntax and semantics for over forty years, and his systemic– functional theory has been a foundation for important work in computational linguistics for at least thirty years. The first major application of systemic theory was the SHRDLU system by(More)
Most of the text from 1992 is unchanged, but more recent material and references have been added. A semantic network or net is a graph structure for representing knowledge in patterns of interconnected nodes and arcs. Computer implementations of semantic networks were first developed for artificial intelligence and machine translation, but earlier versions(More)
The Internet is a giant semiotic system. It is a massive collection of Peirce's three kinds of signs: icons, which show the form of something; indices, which point to something; and symbols, which represent something according to some convention. But current proposals for ontologies and metadata have overlooked some of the most important features of signs.(More)
A parser applies grammar rules to generate a parse tree that shows the syntactic structure of a sentence. This paper describes a semantic interpreter that starts with a parse tree and generates conceptual graphs that represent the meaning of the sentence. To generate conceptual graphs, the interpreter joins canonical graphs associated with each word of(More)
A data base system that supports natural language queries is not really natural if it requires the user to know how the data are represented. This paper defines a formalism, called conceptual graphs, that can describe data according to the user's view and access data according to the system's view. In addition, the graphs can represent functional(More)
A conceptual graph (CG) is a graph representation for logic based on the semantic networks of artificial intelligence and the existential graphs of Charles Sanders Peirce. Several versions of CGs have been designed and implemented over the past thirty years. The simplest are the typeless core CGs, which correspond to Peirce's original existential graphs.(More)