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We report on the prevalence of mutations in the zinc finger transcription factor gene, ZIC2, in a group of 509 unrelated individuals with isolated holoprosencephaly (HPE) and normal chromosomes. Overall, we encountered 16 HPE patients (from 15 unrelated families) with ZIC2 mutations. Thus, ZIC2 mutation was the apparent cause of HPE in 3-4% of cases. Seven(More)
Eight patients (4 males, 4 females) were affected with a previously undefined multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome which was designated the Cardio-Facio-Cutaneous (CFC) syndrome and which includes congenital heart defects, characteristic facial appearance, ectodermal abnormalities, and growth failure. Cardiac defects were variable, the(More)
The Noonan syndrome and the cardio-faciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome have been described as phenotypically and genetically distinct entities. However, the resemblance between them led some authors to question the validity of this separation. We review available clinical evidence to support the opposite view, namely, that the Noonan and CFC syndromes are indeed(More)
Western medicine is being sensitized to the enormous extent of prenatal death in humans at a time when such deaths, occurring after the first missed period, involve to an ever increasing degree wanted pregnancies conceived by women with rising mean maternal age, decreasing mean fertility, and ever greater desire and intention to assure a good pregnancy(More)
The syndromes of Sotos and Weaver are paradigmatic of the daily nosologic difficulties faced by clinical geneticists attempting to diagnose and counsel, and to give accurate prognoses in cases of extensive phenotypic overlap between molecularly undefined entities. Vertebrate development is constrained into only very few final or common developmental paths;(More)
We report on 11 cases of isochromosome 12p mosaicism (or Pallister mosaic aneuploidy syndrome) in which the isochromosome is usually absent in cultured lymphocytes but present in fibroblasts. The patients range in age from a 22-week-gestation fetus to a 45-year-old man. They have a distinct pattern of anomalies which enables one to make a diagnosis based on(More)
We describe clinical, pathological and radiological findings in 15 cases of sporadic and familial lower spine agenesis with additional anomalies of the axial skeleton and internal organs and speculate about the cause and pathogenesis of this malformation complex. We show that all of these findings are defects of blastogenesis, originate in the primary(More)