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Recent studies on gene molecular profiling using cDNA microarray in a relatively small series of breast cancer have identified biologically distinct groups with apparent clinical and prognostic relevance. The validation of such new taxonomies should be confirmed on larger series of cases prior to acceptance in clinical practice. The development of tissue(More)
We have examined basal and luminal cell cytokeratin expression in 1944 cases of invasive breast carcinoma, using tissue microarray (TMA) technology, to determine the frequency of expression of each cytokeratin subtype, their relationships and prognostic relevance, if any. Expression was determined by immunocytochemistry staining using antibodies to the(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that the immune system produces a humoral response to cancer-derived antigens. This study assessed the diagnostic potential of autoantibodies to multiple known tumour-associated proteins. PATIENTS AND METHODS Sera from normal controls (n = 94), primary breast cancer patients (n = 97) and patients with ductal(More)
The recognition of potentially harmful microorganisms involves the specific recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is known to play a central role in this process. TLR-4 is the major recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls,(More)
AIM To assess the reliability of assessment of oestrogen receptor expression on needle core biopsy specimens of invasive carcinomas of the breast. Previous studies have mostly been small, with a range of agreement from 62% to 100%. METHODS Retrospective audit of 338 tumours surgically excised within 60 days of core biopsy, that had had oestrogen receptor(More)
PURPOSE Previous conflicting results about the prognostic significance of estrogen receptor (ER)-beta in breast cancer may be explained by contribution of isoforms, of which five exist. Our aim was to elucidate the prognostic significance of ERbeta1, ERbeta2, and ERbeta5 by immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of breast carcinomas with long-term(More)
BACKGROUND Triple-negative breast cancer (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and HER2-negative) is a high risk breast cancer that lacks the benefit of specific therapy that targets these proteins. METHODS In this study, the authors examined a large and well characterized series of invasive breast carcinoma (n = 1944) with a(More)
BACKGROUND Fulvestrant (ICI 182,780) is a new type of estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist that down-regulates the ER and has no known agonist effects. The authors report the prospectively planned combined analysis of data from 2 Phase III trials comparing fulvestrant 250 mg monthly (n=428) and anastrozole 1 mg daily (n=423) in postmenopausal women with(More)
PURPOSE Response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer correlates with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status. It is usually easier to decide treatment strategies in cases of double-positive/-negative phenotypes than in single-positive tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS We have examined a large and well-characterized series of primary(More)
UNLABELLED Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) comprises approximately 5-15% of breast cancers and appears to have a distinct biology. It is less common than invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and few large studies have addressed its biologic characteristics and behaviour with respect to long-term clinical outcome and response to adjuvant therapy. METHODS This(More)