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Since the first images of polar regions on Mars revealed alternating bright and dark layers, there has been speculation that their formation might be tied to the planet's orbital climate forcing. But uncertainties in the deposition timescale exceed two orders of magnitude: estimates based on assumptions of dust deposition, ice formation and sublimation, and(More)
A key pacemaker of ice ages on the Earth is climatic forcing due to variations in planetary orbital parameters. Recent Mars exploration has revealed dusty, water-ice-rich mantling deposits that are layered, metres thick and latitude dependent, occurring in both hemispheres from mid-latitudes to the poles. Here we show evidence that these deposits formed(More)
Global mineralogical mapping of Mars by the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft provides new information on Mars' geological and climatic history. Phyllosilicates formed by aqueous alteration very early in the planet's history (the "phyllocian" era) are(More)
We investigate the ability to refine pyroxene composition and modal abundance from laboratory and remotely acquired spectra. Laboratory data including the martian meteorites, Shergotty, Zagami, MIL03346, and ALH84001 as well as additional pyroxene-rich spectra obtained from the OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité)(More)
Clay minerals, recently discovered to be widespread in Mars's Noachian terrains, indicate long-duration interaction between water and rock over 3.7 billion years ago. Analysis of how they formed should indicate what environmental conditions prevailed on early Mars. If clays formed near the surface by weathering, as is common on Earth, their presence would(More)
  • Edward A Cloutis, Frank C Hawthorne, Stanley A Mertzman, Katherine Krenn, Michael A Craig, Dionne Marcino +6 others
  • 2006
A suite of sulfate minerals were characterized spectrally, compositionally, and structurally in order to develop spectral reflectance–composi-tional–structural relations for this group of minerals. Sulfates exhibit diverse spectral properties, and absorption-band assignments have been developed for the 0.3–26 µm range. Sulfate absorption features can be(More)
[1] Martian aqueous mineral deposits have been examined and characterized using data acquired during Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's (MRO) primary science phase, including Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars hyperspectral images covering the 0.4–3.9 mm wavelength range, coordinated with higher–spatial resolution HiRISE and Context Imager(More)
An understanding of land use/land cover change at local, regional, and global scales is important in an increasingly human-dominated biosphere. Here, we report on an under-appreciated complexity in the analysis of land cover change important in arid and semi-arid environments. In these environments, some land cover types show a high degree of inter-annual(More)
Phyllosilicates, a class of hydrous mineral first definitively identified on Mars by the OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, L'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activitié) instrument, preserve a record of the interaction of water with rocks on Mars. Global mapping showed that phyllosilicates are widespread but are apparently restricted to ancient terrains and a(More)
Hapke's model for bidirectional reflectance is used to calculate the mass fractional abundance of components in intimately mixed, particulate surfaces from laboratory reflectance spectra. Application of this model, simplified by the assumptions that all surfaces scatter light with the same constant phase function and the opposition surge is negligible, to(More)