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Based on a literature review, the current study aimed to construct mathematical models of lactate production and removal in both muscles and blood during steady state and at varying intensities during whole-body exercise. In order to experimentally test the models in dynamic situations, a cross-country skier performed laboratory tests while treadmill roller(More)
The forces during the kicking phase in Nordic diagonal stride skiing are described by differential equations and the results are compared with experiments. The difference between static and dynamic friction, interacting with characteristics of the skier such as weight, velocity and the kicking force's angle with the terrain, are essential for high-velocity(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate estimates of the incidence and prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are needed to inform public health policies. In Norway, where both MRSA infection and carriage are notifiable conditions, the reported incidence of MRSA is slowly increasing. However, the proportion of MRSA in relation to all S.(More)
We incorporate randomness into deterministic theories and compare analytically and numerically some well-known stochastic theories: the Liouville process, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and a process that is Gaussian and exponentially time correlated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise . Different methods of achieving the marginal densities for correlated and(More)
This study investigated two different mathematical models for the kinetics of anaerobic power. Model 1 assumes that the work power is linear with the work rate, while Model 2 assumes a linear relationship between the alactic anaerobic power and the rate of change of the aerobic power. In order to test these models, a cross country skier ran with poles on a(More)
The current study simulated cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a power balance model. By applying the hypothetical inductive deductive method, we compared the simulated position along the track with actual skiing on snow, and calculated the theoretical effect of friction and air drag on skiing performance. As input values in the model, air(More)
PURPOSE A cross-country sprint competition relies on maximal effort durations of 3-4 minutes. Significant anaerobic energy contribution is expected. Anaerobic energy contribution has been estimated in different sports to date from the accumulated O2 deficit. However, the O2-deficit model can be questioned. We investigate anaerobic energy contribution by(More)
Approximations in population dynamics are gaining popularity since stochastic models in large populations are time consuming even on a computer. Stochastic modeling causes an infinite set of ordinary differential equations for the moments. Closure models are useful since they recast this infinite set into a finite set of ordinary differential equations.(More)
Notations 1 Prologue 5 Notations This is a table of symbols and acronyms used in the thesis. Sign conventions and notations are as in the classic book Gravitation by C. otherwise not stated. In particular greek indices may take values 0 − 3 and latin indices may take values 1 − 3. SYMBOL NAME KE/NKE kinematical/non-kinematical evolution (of the FHSs)(More)