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According to the traditional understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physiology, the majority of CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, circulates through the ventricles, the cisterns, and the subarachnoid space to be absorbed into the blood by the arachnoid villi. This review surveys key developments leading to the traditional concept. Challenging this(More)
OBJECT Cerebral ischemia is the leading cause of preventable death in cases of major trauma with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Intracranial pressure (ICP) control and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) manipulation have significantly reduced the mortality but not the morbidity rate in these patients. In this study, the authors describe their 5-year(More)
Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common form of drug-resistant epilepsy that sometimes responds to dietary manipulation such as the 'ketogenic diet'. Here we have investigated the effects of the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) in the rat kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy. We show that 2DG potently reduces the progression of kindling and(More)
Negative regulation of transcription is an important strategy in establishing and maintaining cell-specific gene expression patterns. Many neuronal genes are subject to active transcriptional repression outside the nervous system to establish neuronal specificity. NRSF/REST has been demonstrated to regulate at least 30 genes and contribute to their neuronal(More)
Although prostate cancer (PrCa) is one of the most common cancers in men in Western countries, little is known about the inherited factors that influence PrCa risk. On the basis of the fact that BRIP1/FANCJ interacts with BRCA1 and functions as a regulator of DNA double-strand break repair pathways, and that germline mutations within the BRIP1/FANCJ gene(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether an association exists between pergolide and valvular heart disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS Three patients with severe, unexplained tricuspid regurgitation were examined at our institution from September 2000 to April 2002. Echocardiography and histology of surgically explanted valves revealed abnormalities suggestive of(More)
A new dynamic technique for the investigation of anorectal function has been developed. This involves radiological visualization of the rectum during voiding of a semisolid radio-opaque contrast medium, and simultaneous measurement of the intrarectal pressure and electrical activity of the external anal sphincter. The method has been used to study patients(More)
The most important factor associated with a good result in the surgical treatment of neurogenic faecal incontinence by postanal repair is considered to be restoration of the obtuse anorectal angle. Sixteen patients (14F:2M; median age 59 years) with neurogenic faecal incontinence confirmed by a raised fibre density in the external anal sphincter underwent(More)
In seven patients with anismus the striated sphincter muscle complex was selectively weakened by local injection of Clostridium botulinum type A toxin. Symptom scores improved significantly and correlated with a significant reduction in the maximum voluntary and canal squeeze pressure and a significant increase in the anorectal angle on straining. Botulinum(More)