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MOTIVATION Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons constitute a substantial fraction of most eukaryotic genomes and are believed to have a significant impact on genome structure and function. Conventional methods used to search for LTR retrotransposons in genome databases are labor intensive. We present an efficient, reliable and automated method to(More)
The evolutionary dynamics existing between transposable elements (TEs) and their host genomes have been likened to an "arms race." The selfish drive of TEs to replicate, in turn, elicits the evolution of host-mediated regulatory mechanisms aimed at repressing transpositional activity. It has been postulated that horizontal (cross-species) transfer may be(More)
In porcine aortic endothelial cells, the 21-amino acid peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) is formed from a 39-amino acid intermediate called "big endothelin-1" (big ET-1) by a putative ET-converting enzyme (ECE) that cleaves the 39-mer at the bond between Trp-21 and Val-22. Since big ET-1 has only 1/100-1/150th the contractile activity of ET-1, inhibition of ECE(More)
BACKGROUND LTR Retrotransposons transpose through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate and are ubiquitous components of all eukaryotic genomes thus far examined. Plant genomes, in particular, have been found to be comprised of a remarkably high number of LTR retrotransposons. There is a significant body of direct and indirect evidence that LTR(More)
BACKGROUND Retrotransposons have been shown to contribute to evolution of both structure and regulation of protein coding genes. It has been postulated that the primary mechanism by which retrotransposons contribute to structural gene evolution is through insertion into an intron or a gene flanking region, and subsequent incorporation into an exon. (More)
We report the results of a phylogenetic survey of the retrotransposon copia in the melanogaster subgroup of the Drosophila genus. The polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the copia 5' long terminal repeat and the adjacent untranslated leader region from representative melanogaster subgroup species. Restriction and sequence analyses of this region(More)
We report the results of an analysis of naturally occurring cis-regulatory variation within and between two families of the copia Drosophila long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon. The copia 5' LTR and adjacent untranslated leader region (ULR) consists of a number of well-characterized sequence motifs which play a role in regulating expression of the(More)
Cell specification and tissue formation during embryonic development are precisely controlled by the local concentration and temporal presentation of morphogenic factors. Similarly, pluripotent embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate in vitro into specific phenotypes in response to morphogen treatment. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are commonly(More)
Since LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses are especially prone to regional duplications and recombination events, these viral-like systems may be especially conducive to the evolution of closely spaced combinatorial regulatory motifs. Using the Drosophila copia LTR retrotransposon as a model, we show that a regulatory region contained within the element's(More)