John F . Kurtzke

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One method of evaluating the degree of neurologic impairment in MS has been the combination of grades (0 = normal to 5 or 6 = maximal impairment) within 8 Functional Systems (FS) and an overall Disability Status Scale (DSS) that had steps from 0 (normal) to 10 (death due to MS). A new Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is presented, with each of the(More)
Geographically MS describes three frequency zones. High frequency areas (prevalence 30+ per 100 000) now comprise most of Europe, Israel, Canada, northern US, southeastern Australia, New Zealand, and easternmost Russia. Medium frequency areas include southern US, most of Australia, South Africa, the southern Mediterranean basin, Russia into Siberia, the(More)
history of disease (Fig. 1). The epidemiologic unit is a person with a diagnosed disorder. The basic question, after diagnosis, is how common is the disease, and this in turn is described by measures of the number of cases as numerator within defined populations as denominator. These ratios, with the addition of the time period to which they pertain, are(More)
Intensive search over the past five years for all cases of multiple sclerosis (MS) on the Faroe Island since about 1920 has revealed 25 cases among native-born resident Faroese up to 1977. All but 1 patient had clinical onset of MS between 1943 and 1960; 1 case began in 1970. Four cases of MS in Faroese with prolonged foreign residence and 5 among(More)
In a national prevalence study of multiple sclerosis (M.S.) in the Republic of South Africa based on census day 1960 there were 118 individuals with M.S. who were born in Northern Europe (United Kingdom and other parts of North and Central Europe) and who had emigrated to the Republic by 1960. Their prevalence rate was 49 per 100,000 immigrants in(More)
Motor neuron disease (MND) is used in this paper as the generic label, encompassing the clinical variants of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive myelopathic muscular atrophy (PMMA), and progressive bulbar palsy (PBP). ALS is limited to instances of anterior horn cell plus pyramidal tract involvement. When only anterior horn cell lesions are(More)
BACKGROUND Nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation is common among the elderly and is associated with an increased risk of stroke. We investigated whether anticoagulation with warfarin would reduce this risk. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate low-intensity anticoagulation with warfarin (prothrombin-time ratio,(More)
OBJECTIVE To review published clinical studies on neurocysticercosis (NCC) in the United States over the past two decades and comment on epidemiologic trends and treatment. METHODS This review is based on a search of the literature citing NCC cases diagnosed in the United States utilizing PUBMED for the years 1980 through early 2004. Case series, case(More)