John F . Kurtzke

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One method of evaluating the degree of neurologic impairment in MS has been the combination of grades (0 = normal to 5 or 6 = maximal impairment) within 8 Functional Systems (FS) and an overall Disability Status Scale (DSS) that had steps from 0 (normal) to 10 (death due to MS). A new Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is presented, with each of the(More)
We identified 5345 cases of multiple sclerosis (MS) among US veterans who first entered military service between 1960 and 1994, and who were "service-connected" for MS by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Two controls per case were matched on age, date of service entry, and branch of service. Available for service and VA files were demographic and(More)
The worldwide distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) can be described within three zones of frequency: high, medium, and low. The disease has a predilection for white races and for women. Migration studies show that changing residence changes MS risk. Studies of persons moving from high- to low-risk areas indicate that in the high-risk areas, MS is(More)
Motor neuron disease (MND) is used in this paper as the generic label, encompassing the clinical variants of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive myelopathic muscular atrophy (PMMA), and progressive bulbar palsy (PBP). ALS is limited to instances of anterior horn cell plus pyramidal tract involvement. When only anterior horn cell lesions are(More)
BACKGROUND Nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation is common among the elderly and is associated with an increased risk of stroke. We investigated whether anticoagulation with warfarin would reduce this risk. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate low-intensity anticoagulation with warfarin (prothrombin-time ratio,(More)