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One method of evaluating the degree of neurologic impairment in MS has been the combination of grades (0 = normal to 5 or 6 = maximal impairment) within 8 Functional Systems (FS) and an overall Disability Status Scale (DSS) that had steps from 0 (normal) to 10 (death due to MS). A new Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is presented, with each of the(More)
The worldwide distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) can be described within three zones of frequency: high, medium, and low. The disease has a predilection for white races and for women. Migration studies show that changing residence changes MS risk. Studies of persons moving from high- to low-risk areas indicate that in the high-risk areas, MS is(More)
BACKGROUND Nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation is common among the elderly and is associated with an increased risk of stroke. We investigated whether anticoagulation with warfarin would reduce this risk. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate low-intensity anticoagulation with warfarin (prothrombin-time ratio,(More)
BACKGROUND The measurement of neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) is of importance in treatment trials and course of illness. METHODS This review describes the rationale underlying the formation and use of a bifid rating system, the (Expanded) Disability Status Scale (DSS) and the Functional Systems (FS). RESULTS All signs found at(More)
If one person can be considered the founder of modern clinical neurology, it would be Jean-Martin Charcot. His lectures at la Salpêtrière on diseases of the nervous system were given from 1866 to 1880. His illustrations of the spinal cord in multiple sclerosis (MS) show the high proportion of white matter involved by the lesions which are “scattered in time(More)
OBJECTIVE To review published clinical studies on neurocysticercosis (NCC) in the United States over the past two decades and comment on epidemiologic trends and treatment. METHODS This review is based on a search of the literature citing NCC cases diagnosed in the United States utilizing PUBMED for the years 1980 through early 2004. Case series, case(More)