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Lysostaphin is an endopeptidase that cleaves the pentaglycine cross-bridges of the staphylococcal cell wall rapidly lysing the bacteria. Recently, lysostaphin has been examined for its potential to treat infections and to clear Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization, requiring a reliable method for determining the lysostaphin susceptibility of strains of(More)
Colonization of the anterior nares in approximately 37% of the population is a major risk factor for severe Staphylococcus aureus infections. Here we show that wall teichoic acid (WTA), a surface-exposed staphylococcal polymer, is essential for nasal colonization and mediates interaction with human nasal epithelial cells. WTA-deficient mutants were impaired(More)
Resistance to human skin innate defenses is crucial for survival and carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, a common cutaneous pathogen and nasal colonizer. Free fatty acids extracted from human skin sebum possess potent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. The mechanisms by which S. aureus overcomes this host defense during colonization remain unknown.(More)
Oxidative-stress resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is linked to metal ion homeostasis via several interacting regulators. In particular, PerR controls the expression of a regulon of genes, many of which encode antioxidants. Two PerR regulon members, ahpC (alkylhydroperoxide reductase) and katA (catalase), show compensatory regulation, with independent and(More)
Shiga toxins (Stx) are potent ribosome-inactivating toxins that are produced by Shigella dysenteriae type 1 or certain strains of Escherichia coli. These toxins are composed of one A subunit that can be nicked and reduced to an enzymatically active A1(approximately 27 kDa) and an A2 peptide (approximately 4 kDa) as well as a pentamer of B subunits(More)
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is an important sporulation-associated virulence factor in several illnesses of humans and domestic animals, including C. perfringens type A food poisoning. Therefore, the ability to determine the enterotoxigenicity of food or fecal C. perfringens isolates with simple, rapid assays should be helpful for(More)
Lysostaphin is under development as a therapy for serious staphylococcal infections. During preclinical development, lysostaphin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus variants have occasionally been reported in vitro and in vivo. The acquisition of resistance to this drug, however, leads to a significant increase in beta-lactam antibiotic susceptibility,(More)
While most complex antigens can induce antibody responses in a mature immunological system, this is not the case when injected into ontogenetically immature systems, as are found in neonates and pediatric-age children. Thus the antibody response to polysaccharides, which would in theory provide protection against infection by all polysaccharide encapsulated(More)
The C-terminal third of intimin binds to its translocated receptor (Tir) to promote attaching and effacing lesion formation during infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). We observed that the adherence of EPEC strains to HEp-2 cells was reduced and that actin polymerization was blocked by antibody raised against the C-terminal third of(More)
BACKGROUND Pagibaximab, a human chimeric monoclonal antibody developed against lipoteichoic acid, was effective against staphylococci preclinically and seemed safe and well tolerated in phase 1 studies. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical activity, pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of weekly pagibaximab versus placebo infusions in very low birth(More)