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Climate change and decadal variability are impacting marine fish and invertebrate species worldwide and these impacts will continue for the foreseeable future. Quantitative approaches have been developed to examine climate impacts on productivity, abundance, and distribution of various marine fish and invertebrate species. However, it is difficult to apply(More)
This synthesis focuses on the estuarine and ocean ecology of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) across their southern ranges in North America. General life history and ecology share many common traits including iteroparity, duration of freshwater (0–3 years) and marine (2–5 years) rearing, ocean emigration at relatively large(More)
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