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Pediculosis is a widespread condition reported in schoolchildren. Treatment most commonly involves the physical removal of nits using fine-toothcombs and the chemical treatment of adult lice and eggs with topical preparations. The active constituents of these preparations frequently exert their effects through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC(More)
Platelets have been implicated in colon cancer metastasis and prognosis but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We evaluated the role of the different mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in platelet-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) generation and colon cancer invasion. In addition, proteins released during(More)
Aspirin prodrugs have been intensively investigated in an effort to produce compounds with lower gastric toxicity, greater stability or enhanced percutaneous absorption, relative to aspirin. This report describes the hydrolysis kinetics and aspirin release characteristics of isosorbide diaspirinate (ISDA), the aspirin diester of isosorbide. ISDA underwent(More)
Dihydroxy bile acids, such as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), are well known to promote colonic fluid and electrolyte secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea associated with bile acid malabsorption. However, CDCA is rapidly metabolised by colonic bacteria to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), the effects of which on epithelial transport are poorly characterised. Here,(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be upregulated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other inflammatory conditions, but while their involvement is clear, their role in many settings has yet to be determined. Studies of the involvement of MMPs in IBD since 2006 have revealed an array of immune and stromal cells which release the proteases in(More)
We describe a new type of barbiturate-based matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor incorporating a nitric oxide (NO) donor/mimetic group (series 1). The compounds were designed to inhibit MMP at enzyme level and to attenuate MMP-9 secretion arising from inflammatory signaling. To detect effects related to the nitrate, we prepared and studied an analogous(More)
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as an important tool for evaluating the ionisation characteristics of compounds and their corresponding pKa values. A particular strength of CE in this context is that its relative selectivity allows one to measure the extent of ionisation of materials that are impure. In this study, using CE, we have measured the(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) levels are found to increase in inflammation states and in cancer, and their levels may be reciprocally modulated. Understanding interactions between NO and MMP-9 is of biological and pharmacological relevance and may prove crucial in designing new therapeutics. The reciprocal interaction between NO(More)
The molecular mechanisms and interactions underlying bile acid cytotoxicity are important to understand for intestinal and hepatic disease treatment and prevention and the design of bile acid-based therapeutics. Bile acid lipophilicity is believed to be an important cytotoxicity determinant but the relationship is not well characterized. In this study we(More)
Reported here is the synthesis and SAR of novel group of highly potent and selective inhibitors of human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE; EC 3.1.1.8). The design is based on the discovery that isosorbide 2-esters are hydrolysed by BuChE at exceptionally rapid rates. Two families of carbamates were synthesised in which the vulnerable 2-ester was replaced(More)