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OBJECTIVE Natalizumab, a therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), has been associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare opportunistic infection of the CNS associated with the JC virus. We assessed clinical outcomes and identified variables associated with survival in 35 patients with natalizumab-associated PML. METHODS Physicians(More)
There is currently a wide variation in the level of service provided for patients with epilepsy across the UK. Evidence is becoming available to suggest that improvements in local service provision may be achieved through the intervention of a specialist nurse. Using practical examples, this article explores the roles of the epilepsy specialist nurse, and(More)
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) regulates a wide variety of developmental processes. Keratin 14 (K14) promoter-mediated overexpression of PTHrP in the epidermis during development converts the entire murine ventral skin to hairless nipple-like skin. In this report, we characterize the morphology and processes that influence the development of(More)
OBJECTIVE To find biomarkers identifying patients at risk for the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) during natalizumab treatment. METHODS Patients were recruited from 10 European and US cohorts. Of 289 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), 224 had been treated with natalizumab (18-80 months), 21 received other(More)
BACKGROUND Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning may result in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and neurocognitive impairments. OBJECTIVE To assess in a prospective study WMH in CO-poisoned patients and their relationship to cognitive functioning. METHODS Seventy-three consecutive CO-poisoned patients were studied. MR scans and neurocognitive tests were(More)
Color patterns of bird plumage affect animal behavior and speciation. Diverse patterns are present in different species and within the individual. Here, we study the cellular and molecular basis of feather pigment pattern formation. Melanocyte progenitors are distributed as a horizontal ring in the proximal follicle, sending melanocytes vertically up into(More)
Feathers have complex forms and are an excellent model to study the development and evolution of morphologies. Existing chicken feather mutants are especially useful for identifying genetic determinants of feather formation. This study focused on the gene F, underlying the frizzle feather trait that has a characteristic curled feather rachis and barbs in(More)
Feathers have complex forms and are an excellent model to study the development and evolution of morphologies. Existing chicken feather mutants are especially useful for identifying genetic determinants of feather formation. This study focused on the gene F, underlying the frizzle feather trait that has a characteristic curled feather rachis and barbs in(More)
Although our understanding of multiple sclerosis (MS) has grown exponentially in the past century and a half, there is still some divergence between physicians' perceptions of effects of MS on patients and those of the patients themselves. This article examines current practices in MS assessment and clinical trial design, highlighting certain deficiencies(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating neurological disorder that affects nearly 2 million adults, mostly in the prime of their youth. An environmental trigger, such as a viral infection, is hypothesized to initiate the abnormal behavior of host immune cells: to attack and damage the myelin sheath surrounding the neurons of the central nervous system.(More)