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Measurements in a coastal inlet revealed turbulence that was three to four orders of magnitude larger during the dusk ascent of a dense acoustic-scattering layer of krill than during the day, elevating daily-averaged mixing in the inlet by a factor of 100. Because vertically migrating layers of swimming organisms are found in much of the ocean, biologically(More)
Since the introduction of the microbial loop concept, awareness of the role played by protozooplankton in marine food webs has grown. By consuming bacteria, and then being consumed by metazooplankton, protozoa form a trophic link that channels dissolved organic material into the "classic" marine food chain. Beyond enhancing energy transfer to higher trophic(More)
Ontogenetic niche shifts are widely prevalent in nature and are important in shaping the structure and dynamics of ecosystems. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool to assess these shifts, with δ(15) N providing a measure of trophic level and δ(13) C a measure of energy source. Previous applications of stable isotopes to study ontogenetic niche shifts(More)
Our interests are in oceanic processes that contribute to stirring and mixing in order to understand their impact on larger scales so that better subgridscale parameterizations may be implemented. This includes phenomena ranging from the microscale (1 cm) up to the mesoscale (10-100 km). OBJECTIVES Work on ocean biosphere energetics suggests that schooling(More)
Marine invaders have become a significant threat to native biodiversity and ecosystem function. In this study, the invasion of the varnish clam (Nuttallia obscurata) in British Columbia, Canada, is investigated using a matrix modeling approach to identify the life history characteristics most crucial for population growth and to investigate population(More)
Global patterns show that estuaries are more invaded than open coasts and artificial habitats are more invaded than natural ones. The contention that artificial habitats in estuaries are more invasible than other habitats may result from variation in propagule supply, however, as artificial habitats are closely linked to vectors of non-native propagules,(More)
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