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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed antidepressant class today and exert their antidepressant-like effects by increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin (5-HT). The rat forced swim test (FST) is the most widely used animal test predictive of antidepressant action. Procedural modifications recently introduced(More)
Animal models are indispensable tools in the search to identify new antidepressant drugs and to provide insights into the neuropathology that underlies the idiopathic disease state of depression. As new targets are developed, both serendipitously and through hypothesis-driven research, existing animal paradigms are being modified and new tests are being(More)
There is increasing, but largely indirect, evidence pointing to an effect of commensal gut microbiota on the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is unknown whether lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus could have a direct effect on neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS in normal, healthy animals. GABA is the main CNS inhibitory(More)
Recent years have witnessed the rise of the gut microbiota as a major topic of research interest in biology. Studies are revealing how variations and changes in the composition of the gut microbiota influence normal physiology and contribute to diseases ranging from inflammation to obesity. Accumulating data now indicate that the gut microbiota also(More)
Since its introduction almost 20 years ago, the tail suspension test has become one of the most widely used models for assessing antidepressant-like activity in mice. The test is based on the fact that animals subjected to the short-term, inescapable stress of being suspended by their tail, will develop an immobile posture. Various antidepressant(More)
Psychiatry has proven to be among the least penetrable clinical disciplines for the development of satisfactory in vivo model systems for evaluating novel treatment approaches. However, mood and anxiety disorders remain poorly understood and inadequately treated. With the explosion in the use of genetically modified mice, enormous research efforts have been(More)
The forced swim test (FST) is the most widely used model for assessing potential antidepressant activity in rodents following acute or short-term treatment. However, few studies have compared the effects of short- and long-term antidepressant treatment on behaviors in the test, despite the need to treat patients chronically to produce clinical effects. The(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) subtypes (mGluR1 to mGluR8) act as important pre- and postsynaptic regulators of neurotransmission in the CNS. These receptors consist of two domains, an extracellular region containing the orthosteric agonist site and a transmembrane heptahelical domain involved in G protein activation and recognition of several(More)
The forced swim test (FST) is one of the most commonly used animal models for assessing antidepressant-like behavior. This protocol details using the FST in rats, which takes place over 48 h and is followed by the video analysis of the behavior. The swim test involves the scoring of active (swimming and climbing) or passive (immobility) behavior when(More)
BACKGROUND Adverse early life events are associated with a maladaptive stress response system and might increase the vulnerability to disease in later life. Several disorders have been associated with early life stress, ranging from depression to irritable bowel syndrome. This makes the identification of the neurobiological substrates that are affected by(More)