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Current literature describes several methods for the design of efficient siRNAs with 19 perfectly matched base pairs and 2 nt overhangs. Using four independent databases totaling 3336 experimentally verified siRNAs, we compared how well several of these methods predict siRNA cleavage efficiency. According to receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and(More)
During the expression of a certain genes standard decoding is over-ridden in a site or mRNA specific manner. This recoding occurs in response to special signals in mRNA and probably occurs in all organisms. This review deals with the function and distribution of recoding with a focus on the ribosomal frameshifting used for gene expression in bacteria.
Rat antizyme gene expression requires programmed, ribosomal frameshifting. A novel autoregulatory mechanism enables modulation of frameshifting according to the cellular concentration of polyamines. Antizyme binds to, and destabilizes, ornithine decarboxylase, a key enzyme in polyamine synthesis. Rapid degradation ensues, thus completing a regulatory(More)
The RECODE database is a compilation of 'programmed' translational recoding events taken from the scientific literature and personal communications. The database deals with programmed ribosomal frameshifting, codon redefinition and translational bypass occurring in a variety of organisms. The entries for each event include the sequences of the corresponding(More)
Stop codon readthrough is used extensively by viruses to expand their gene expression. Until recent discoveries in Drosophila, only a very limited number of readthrough cases in chromosomal genes had been reported. Analysis of conserved protein coding signatures that extend beyond annotated stop codons identified potential stop codon readthrough of four(More)
MOTIVATION In an effort to identify potential programmed frameshift sites by statistical analysis, we explore the hypothesis that selective pressure would have rendered such sites underabundant and underrepresented in protein-coding sequences. We developed a computer program to compare the frequencies of k-length subsequences of nucleotides with the(More)
In Sindbis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and related alphaviruses, the polymerase is translated as a fusion with other non-structural proteins via readthrough of a UGA stop codon. Surprisingly, earlier work reported that the signal for efficient readthrough comprises a single cytidine residue 3'-adjacent to the UGA. However, analysis of variability at(More)
In eukaryotes, it is generally assumed that translation initiation occurs at the AUG codon closest to the messenger RNA 5' cap. However, in certain cases, initiation can occur at codons differing from AUG by a single nucleotide, especially the codons CUG, UUG, GUG, ACG, AUA and AUU. While non-AUG initiation has been experimentally verified for a handful of(More)
'Recoding' is a term used to describe non-standard read-out of the genetic code, and encompasses such phenomena as programmed ribosomal frameshifting, stop codon readthrough, selenocysteine insertion and translational bypassing. Although only a small proportion of genes utilize recoding in protein synthesis, accurate annotation of 'recoded' genes lags far(More)