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Translational bypassing joins the information found within two disparate open reading frames into a single polypeptide chain. The underlying mechanism centers on the decoding properties of peptidyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) and involves three stages: take-off, scanning, and landing. In take-off, the peptidyl-tRNA/messenger RNA (mRNA) complex in the P site of the(More)
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection leads to variable and imperfectly understood pathogenicity. We report that segment 3 of the virus contains a second open reading frame ("X-ORF"), accessed via ribosomal frameshifting. The frameshift product, termed PA-X, comprises the endonuclease domain of the viral PA protein with a C-terminal domain encoded by the X-ORF(More)
Rat antizyme gene expression requires programmed, ribosomal frameshifting. A novel autoregulatory mechanism enables modulation of frameshifting according to the cellular concentration of polyamines. Antizyme binds to, and destabilizes, ornithine decarboxylase, a key enzyme in polyamine synthesis. Rapid degradation ensues, thus completing a regulatory(More)
Current literature describes several methods for the design of efficient siRNAs with 19 perfectly matched base pairs and 2 nt overhangs. Using four independent databases totaling 3336 experimentally verified siRNAs, we compared how well several of these methods predict siRNA cleavage efficiency. According to receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and(More)
The plant-infecting members of the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) have linear dsRNA genomes divided into 10 segments, two of which contain two substantial and non-overlapping ORFs, while the remaining eight are apparently monocistronic. However, one of these - namely segment 5 - contains a second long ORF (approximately 200+ codons) that overlaps the(More)
Stop codon readthrough is used extensively by viruses to expand their gene expression. Until recent discoveries in Drosophila, only a very limited number of readthrough cases in chromosomal genes had been reported. Analysis of conserved protein coding signatures that extend beyond annotated stop codons identified potential stop codon readthrough of four(More)
Programmed ribosomal frameshifting is used in the expression of many virus genes and some cellular genes. In eukaryotic systems, the most well-characterized mechanism involves -1 tandem tRNA slippage on an X_XXY_YYZ motif. By contrast, the mechanisms involved in programmed +1 (or -2) slippage are more varied and often poorly characterized. Recently, a novel(More)
Members of the genus Cypovirus (family Reoviridae) are common pathogens of insects. These viruses have linear dsRNA genomes divided into 10-11 segments, which have generally been assumed to be monocistronic. Here, bioinformatic evidence is presented for a short overlapping coding sequence (CDS) in the cypovirus genome segment encoding the major core capsid(More)