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OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of metformin in healthy horses. ANIMALS 4 adult horses. PROCEDURES 6 g of metformin was administered 3 times IV and PO (fed and unfed) to each horse, by use of a crossover design, with a 1-week washout period between treatments. Plasma metformin concentration was determined via(More)
BACKGROUND Overexpression of c-myc is postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). c-myc expression is increased in all rodent models of PKD that have been examined as well as in human ADPKD. To determine whether overexpression of renal c-myc contributes to renal cyst formation, C57BL/6J-cpk litters (an animal model of(More)
The breakdown of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) under conditions of oxidative stress results in the formation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products. These LPO products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE) can contribute to the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Conjugation with glutathione,(More)
Chlorophyll (Chla) and chlorophyllin (CHL) were shown previously to reduce carcinogen bioavailability, biomarker damage, and tumorigenicity in trout and rats. These findings were partially extended to humans, where CHL reduced excretion of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-DNA repair products in Chinese unavoidably exposed to dietary AFB(1). However, neither AFB(1)(More)
Chemotherapy resistance is a significant obstacle in lung cancer therapy, and has been found to frequently correlate with amplification and overexpression of the c-myc oncogene. Earlier studies have shown that c-Myc inhibition alone is not always effective in cancer models. The purpose of this study was to test different dosing regimen, which included(More)
BACKGROUND Osteosarcoma (OS) affects over 8000 dogs/year in the United States. The disease usually arises in the appendicular skeleton and metastasizes to the lung. Dogs with localized appendicular disease benefit from limb amputation and chemotherapy but most die within 6-12 months despite these treatments. Taurolidine, a derivative of taurine, has(More)
The hypothesis tested was that specific flavonoids such as epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, genistin, naringenin, naringin, quercetin and xanthohumol will modulate cellular uptake and permeability (P(e)) of multidrug-resistant substrates, cyclosporin A (CSA) and digoxin, across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cell transport models.(More)
Nutritionists generally consider all-rac-alpha-tocopherol and RRR-alpha-tocopherol equivalent in vitamin E activity but disagree whether equivalency requires a dosage ratio of 1.36:1 or 2:1. In contrast, we hypothesize that all-rac- and RRR-alpha-tocopherols are not equivalent in any dosage ratio. Previous observations that all-rac- and(More)
BACKGROUND Effective targeted therapies are needed in sarcomas, but the biological heterogeneity of these tumors has presented a challenge to clinical integration of small molecule inhibitors in sarcoma treatment. Here we outline a process to personalize therapy for sarcomas through a case study of a canine with spontaneous osteosarcoma. PROCEDURE Rapid(More)
Solid tumors often display metabolic abnormalities that consistently produce low pH in the extracellular space of poorly perfused tissue. These acidic regions may provide a mechanism for drug targeting. Peptides have been designed in such a manner that they exist in an anionic hydrophilic form at the pH of normal tissues, but then undergo a sharp transition(More)