John E. Starrett

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During ischemic stroke, neurons at risk are exposed to pathologically high levels of intracellular calcium (Ca++), initiating a fatal biochemical cascade. To protect these neurons, we have developed openers of large-conductance, Ca++-activated (maxi-K or BK) potassium channels, thereby augmenting an endogenous mechanism for regulating Ca++ entry and(More)
Using retinoic acid receptor (RAR) reporter cells specific for either RAR alpha, beta or gamma, we have identified synthetic retinoids which specifically induce transactivation by RAR beta, while antagonizing RA-induced transactivation by RAR alpha and RAR gamma. Like RA, these synthetic retinoids allow all three RAR types to repress AP1 (c-Jun/c-Fos)(More)
During the course of our research efforts to develop a potent and selective γ-secretase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we investigated a series of carboxamide-substituted sulfonamides. Optimization based on potency, Notch/amyloid-β precursor protein selectivity, and brain efficacy after oral dosing led to the discovery of 4(More)
Through expression of the cloned mouse (mSlo) or human (hSlo) large-conductance (BK) Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel in Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK 293 cells, we characterized the effects of reported blockers and openers of BK channels to initiate the study of the molecular determinants of BK channel modulation. In oocytes, iberiotoxin and charybdotoxin,(More)
Synchronous hippocampal electroencephalographic activity occurring in a frequency range of 3 to12 Hz (i.e., hippocampal theta rhythm) has been associated with mnemonic processes in vivo. However, this link is tenuous and theta rhythm may be secondary to processes that underlie mnemonic function. If theta rhythm is associated with mnemonic or cognitive(More)
We report here on a chemical genetic screen designed to address the mechanism of action of a small molecule. Small molecules that were active in models of urinary incontinence were tested on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and the resulting phenotypes were used as readouts in a genetic screen to identify possible molecular targets. The mutations giving(More)
Large-conductance calcium-activated (maxi-K, BK) potassium channels are widely distributed in the brain. Maxi-K channels function as neuronal calcium sensors and contribute to the control of cellular excitability and the regulation of neurotransmitter release. Little is currently known of any significant role of maxi-K channels in the genesis of(More)
Signalling by all-trans retinoic acid is mediated through RXR-RAR retinoid receptor heterodimers, in which RXR has been considered to act as a transcriptionally silent partner. However, we show here that in cultured NB4 (ref. 6) human acute promyelocytic leukaemia cells treated with either an RAR-alpha-selective agonist alone, or certain RAR-alpha(More)
Antagonists of serotonin 6 (5-HT6) receptors have been reported to enhance cognition in animal models of learning, although this finding has not been universal. We have assessed the therapeutic potential of the specific 5-HT6 receptor antagonists 4-amino-N-(2,6-bis-methylamino-pyrimidin-4-yl)-benzenesulfonamide (Ro 04-6790) and(More)
A series of 1,3-diaryl 1,2,4-(4H)-triazol-5-ones was prepared and shown by electrophysiological analysis to activate a cloned maxi-K channel mSlo (or hSlo) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The effects of these structurally novel maxi-K channel openers on bladder contractile function were studied in vitro using isolated rat bladder strips pre-contracted(More)