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A popular view of interval timing in animals is that it is driven by a discrete pacemaker-accumulator mechanism that yields a linear scale for encoded time. But these mechanisms are fundamentally at odds with the Weber law property of interval timing, and experiments that support linear encoded time can be interpreted in other ways. We argue that the(More)
Two experiments used response-initiated delay schedules to test the idea that when food reinforcement is available at regular intervals, the time an animal waits before its first operant response (waiting time) is proportional to the immediately preceding interfood interval (linear waiting; Wynne & Staddon, 1988). In Experiment 1 the interfood intervals(More)
Habituation is the waning of a reflex response to repeated stimulation. Habituation to closely spaced stimuli is faster and more complete than to widely spaced stimuli, but recovery is also more rapid (rate sensitivity). We show that a 2-unit, cascaded-integrator dynamic model can explain in detail an extensive data set on rate-sensitive habituation in the(More)
The authors propose a simple behavioral economic model (BEM) describing how reinforcement and interval timing interact. The model assumes a Weber-law-compliant logarithmic representation of time. Associated with each represented time value are the payoffs that have been obtained for each possible response. At a given real time, the response with the highest(More)
Existing models of operant learning are relatively insensitive to historical properties of behavior and applicable to only limited data sets. This article proposes a minimal set of principles based on short-term and long-term memory mechanisms that can explain the major static and dynamic properties of operant behavior in both single-choice and(More)
In Experiment 1, 3 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were trained with food reinforcement to make low- or high-frequency calls in response to different color stimuli, C1 and C2 (a color-naming task), using a gradual response-differentiation procedure and an automatic call-recognition system. Thus, a call within a certain frequency band was reinforced in(More)
Research on animal metacognition has typically used choice discriminations whose difficulty can be varied. Animals are given some opportunity to escape the discrimination task by emitting a so-called uncertain response. The usual claim is that an animal possesses metacognition if (a) the probability of picking the uncertain response increases with task(More)
Rats pressing a lever for food reinforcement showed large positive-contrast effects when provided with the opportunity for a competing wheel-running response. Positive and negative behavioral contrast may reflect reallocation of competing interim and terminal responses between schedule components following changes in the reinforcement conditions in one(More)
Pigeons were exposed to fixed-time schedules of food presentation ranging from five to 300 seconds. Although consistent, stereotyped response patterns developed during interfood intervals on all schedules, there were distinct differences in the behavior observed on schedules with short, as opposed to long, intervals. During the shorter intervals, responses(More)