John E. Munroe

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We report the selection and characterization of influenza A/NWS-G70c and B/HK/8/73 (HG) viruses which are resistant to the potent influenza neuraminidase inhibitor, 4-guanidino-Neu5Ac2en. Viruses were selected which replicated in MDCK cells in the presence of 20 micrograms/ml inhibitor. The neuraminidase of resistant viruses was > 200-fold more resistant to(More)
Entry of influenza virus into the host cell is dependent on the fusion of the viral envelope with the endosomal membrane and is mediated by a low-pH-induced change of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) to a conformation that is fusogenic. A compound related to podocarpic acid (180299) was identified that inhibits multicycle replication of influenza A/Kawasaki/86(More)
Fluid cell membranes are the main barrier to drug absorption when diffusion limits uptake. Immobilized artificial membranes (IAMs) are solid phase models of fluid membranes that predicted oral drug absorption in mice for a homologous set of cephalosporins. IAMs also predicted drug permeability through Caco-2 cells. Since drug permeability in Caco-2 cells is(More)
The synthesis and microbiological evaluation of a new series of 3-thiazol-4-yl-carba-1-dethiacephalosporins is described. Structure activity relationship was achieved by changing substitution at the 2-position of the thiazole moiety. The result was a marked variance of microbiological activity in the C7 side-chain derivatives. ATMO derivatives possess(More)
Cryptophycins-1 and 52 (epoxides) were discovered to have in-vitro and in-vivo antitumor activity in the early 1990s. The chlorohydrins of these, Cryptophycins-8 and 55 (also discovered in the early 1990s) were markedly more active, but could not be formulated as stable solutions. With no method to adequately stabilize the chlorohydrins at the time,(More)
The enhanced stability of the carbacephem nucleus over the corresponding cephalosporin nucleus has allowed the synthesis of 7-arylglycyl-3-trifluoromethyl-carbacephems. These unique carbacephems possess broad spectrum activity and high stability to both plasmid and chromosomally mediated beta-lactamases.