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This work documents a new method for rapid and robust Cartesian mesh generation for component-based geometry. The new algorithm adopts a novel strategy which first intersects the components to extract the wetted surface before proceeding with volume mesh generation in a second phase. The intersection scheme is based on a robust geometry engine that uses(More)
This review is a summary of the effects of brain hypoxia on respiration with a particular emphasis on those studies relevant to understanding the cellular basis of these effects. Special attention is given to mechanisms that may be responsible for the respiratory depression that appears to be the primary sequela of brain hypoxia in animal models. Although a(More)
Brain extracellular potassium [( K+]ec) in the ventral respiratory group of the medulla and the phrenic neurogram were recorded in anesthetized vagotomized peripherally chemodenervated ventilated cats during progressive isocapnic carbon monoxide (CO) hypoxia. During hypoxia, the phrenic neurogram was progressively depressed and became silent when arterial(More)
This study quantitatively evaluates the contribution of tissue Na, Cl, and K loss to brain volume regulation during acute dilutional hyponatremia (DH) and examines the mechanism of Na loss. DH was produced in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats by intraperitoneal infusion of distilled water and brain water and electrolytes analyzed 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 4 h,(More)
Dilutional (DH) and isosmotic (IH) hyponatremia (plasma [Na+] = 103-109 meq/l) were produced in conscious rats over 3-6 h by intraperitoneal injection of water or mannitol Ringer solution. During DH, CSF [Na+], [Cl-], and osmolality decreased as predicted by passive dilution by the water load. During IH, these variables exhibited little change. Brain water(More)
Exposure of anesthetized paralyzed vagotomized peripherally chemodenervated cats to hypoxia results in initial depression and subsequent loss of the phrenic neurogram. To determine whether hypoxic respiratory depression results from the inhibition of respiratory premotor neurons by bulbospinal neurons of the Bötzinger complex (Böt-E neurons), extracellular(More)
In peripherally chemodenervated, vagotomized, chloralose-anesthetized cats, hypoxia can produce central cardiorespiratory depression or excitation depending on severity. We monitored phrenic and cervical sympathetic neurograms during either hypoxic depression or gasping and 30 min of subsequent isocapnic reoxygenation to determine whether the response of(More)
We assessed the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a potential causative agent of hypoxic respiratory depression by monitoring the response of the phrenic neurogram to systemic infusion of the GABA antagonist bicuculline (0.01 mg.kg-1.min-1) under control conditions and during isocapnic brain hypoxia produced by CO inhalation in separate groups of(More)
The CO2 response of the phrenic neurogram before and during CO-induced isocapnic brain hypoxia was studied in peripherally chemodenervated, vagotomized, paralyzed, ventilated cats with blood pressure held constant. During inhalation of 0.5% CO in 40% O2, arterial O2 content (CaO2) was reduced to 40% and minute phrenic activity to 38.4 +/- 9.4% (SE; n = 9)(More)