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In this study, we examined the roles of specific cognitive (attentional bias) and genetic (5-HTTLPR) risk factors in the intergenerational transmission of depression. Focusing first on the link between maternal history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and children's attentional biases, we found that children of mothers with a history of MDD during their(More)
Variation in the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with heightened neural activity in limbic and prefrontal regions in response to emotional stimuli. The current study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is also associated with alterations in microstructure of frontal-limbic white matter (WM) tracts.(More)
Theorists have proposed that negative experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of experience-specific information-processing biases, including attentional biases. There are also clear genetic influences on cognitive processes, with evidence that polymorphisms in specific candidate genes may moderate the impact of environmental stress on(More)
Advances in molecular genetics have provided behavioral scientists with a means of investigating the influence of genetic factors on human behavior. Unfortunately, recent candidate gene studies have produced inconsistent results, and a frequent scapegoat for the lack of replication across studies is the threat of population stratification. This review of(More)
The short allele in a variable repeat sequence of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with stronger activation in brain regions critical for processing emotional stimuli. The authors examined whether variants of the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphism were also associated with individual differences in attentional(More)
A deletion polymorphism in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with vulnerability to affective disorders, yet the mechanism by which this gene confers vulnerability remains unclear. Two studies examined associations between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and attentional bias for emotional stimuli among nondepressed(More)
Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC)(More)
In addition to the large literatures on associations of the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism with ADHD and personality traits, there is an emerging literature linking this variant to addiction and addiction-related phenotypes. When only diagnosis-based studies are considered, an inconsistent picture emerges raising doubts as to the relevance of this polymorphism to(More)
There is growing evidence that rumination, perhaps specifically brooding rumination, is a core feature of depression and that it contributes to the development and maintenance of the disorder. A separate line of research has highlighted the role played by heart rate variability (HRV). Both brooding rumination and HRV appear to be driven by disruption in the(More)
Humans with seven or more repeats in exon III of the DRD4 gene (long DRD4 carriers) sometimes demonstrate impaired attention, as seen in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and at other times demonstrate heightened attention, as seen in addictive behavior. Although the clinical effects of DRD4 are the focus of much work, this gene may not necessarily(More)