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Variation in the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with heightened neural activity in limbic and prefrontal regions in response to emotional stimuli. The current study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is also associated with alterations in microstructure of frontal-limbic white matter (WM) tracts.(More)
In this study, we examined the roles of specific cognitive (attentional bias) and genetic (5-HTTLPR) risk factors in the intergenerational transmission of depression. Focusing first on the link between maternal history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and children's attentional biases, we found that children of mothers with a history of MDD during their(More)
The short allele in a variable repeat sequence of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with stronger activation in brain regions critical for processing emotional stimuli. The authors examined whether variants of the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphism were also associated with individual differences in attentional(More)
Recent research has suggested that alterations in mesolimbic dopamine neurotransmission are central to the development and expression of craving for alcohol. Because the D4 dopamine receptor gene, variable numbers of tandem repeats (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism putatively expresses functional differences in dopamine receptors, the present study tested whether(More)
A deletion polymorphism in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with vulnerability to affective disorders, yet the mechanism by which this gene confers vulnerability remains unclear. Two studies examined associations between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and attentional bias for emotional stimuli among nondepressed(More)
Advances in molecular genetics have provided behavioral scientists with a means of investigating the influence of genetic factors on human behavior. Unfortunately, recent candidate gene studies have produced inconsistent results, and a frequent scapegoat for the lack of replication across studies is the threat of population stratification. This review of(More)
BACKGROUND Naltrexone (NTX) reduces drinking and craving in alcoholic individuals in treatment and also in heavy drinkers. Polymorphisms in the D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) gene and mu-opiate receptor gene (OPRM1) may moderate NTX's effects on craving. This study examined these candidate genes as moderators of the effects of NTX on cue-elicited urge to drink(More)
Separate investigations have suggested that olanzapine, a D4 antagonist, decreases craving after a priming dose of alcohol and that the DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism influences the expression of craving after a priming dose of alcohol. The present study tested the hypothesis that olanzapine may be differentially effective at(More)
Alcohol use is often implicated in initial lapses to smoking during quit smoking attempts. Mechanisms explaining this association are unknown but could include (a) learned associations between drinking and smoking or (b) direct pharmacologic effects of alcohol. In a 2 (told alcohol vs. told placebo) × 2 (0.4 g/kg vs. 0.0 g/kg ethanol) between-subjects(More)
Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC)(More)