John E. Leonard

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease characterized by immune cell infiltration of CNS, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, localized myelin destruction, and progressive neuronal degeneration. There exists a significant need to identify novel therapeutic targets and strategies that effectively and safely disrupt and even reverse(More)
BACKGROUND Receptor occupancy, or saturation, assays are often utilized in preclinical and clinical development programs to evaluate the binding of a biologic to a cellular target. These assays provide critical information regarding the dose of drug required to "saturate" the target as well as important pharmacodymamic (PD) data. A flow cytometric method(More)
Semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D, CD100) and its receptor plexin-B1 are broadly expressed in cancer and expression correlates with invasive disease in several human tumors. SEMA4D normally functions to regulate the motility and differentiation of multiple cell types, including those of the immune, vascular, and nervous systems. In the setting of cancer, we describe a(More)
Semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D or CD100) is a member of the semaphorin family of proteins and an important mediator of the movement and differentiation of multiple cell types, including those of the immune, vascular, and nervous systems. Blocking the binding of SEMA4D to its receptors can result in physiologic changes that may have implications in cancer,(More)
Overbuilding in commercial real estate in the 1980s is commonly viewed as an example of a speculative bubble. This paper questions that view and proposes an environment in which overbuilding could occur as a rational response to fiscal policy in the 1980s. Further, this paper contends that overbuilding could have been accompanied by bank financing, even(More)
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