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Hsp90 molecular chaperones in eukaryotic cells play essential roles in the folding and activation of a range of client proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, steroid hormone responsiveness, and signal transduction. The biochemical mechanism of Hsp90 is poorly understood, and the involvement of ATP in particular is controversial. Crystal structures of(More)
Despite recent insights into melanoma genetics, systematic surveys for driver mutations are challenged by an abundance of passenger mutations caused by carcinogenic UV light exposure. We developed a permutation-based framework to address this challenge, employing mutation data from intronic sequences to control for passenger mutational load on a per gene(More)
Hsp90 is an abundant molecular chaperone essential to the establishment of many cellular regulation and signal transduction systems, but remains one of the least well described chaperones. The biochemical mechanism of protein folding by Hsp90 is poorly understood, and the direct involvement of ATP has been particularly contentious. Here we demonstrate in(More)
The in vivo function of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) molecular chaperone is dependent on the binding and hydrolysis of ATP, and on interactions with a variety of co-chaperones containing tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains. We have now analysed the interaction of the yeast TPR-domain co-chaperones Sti1 and Cpr6 with yeast Hsp90 by isothermal(More)
The binding of TCRs to their peptide-MHC ligands is characterized by a low affinity, slow kinetics, and a high degree of cross-reactivity. Here, we report the results of a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of two TCRs binding to their peptide-MHC ligands, which reveal two striking features. First, significant activation energy barriers must be overcome(More)
How the ATPase activity of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is coupled to client protein activation remains obscure. Using truncation and missense mutants of Hsp90, we analysed the structural implications of its ATPase cycle. C-terminal truncation mutants lacking inherent dimerization displayed reduced ATPase activity, but dimerized in the presence of(More)
Protein phosphatase 5 (Ppp5) is a serine/threonine protein phosphatase comprising a regulatory tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain N-terminal to its phosphatase domain. Ppp5 functions in signalling pathways that control cellular responses to stress, glucocorticoids and DNA damage. Its phosphatase activity is suppressed by an autoinhibited conformation(More)
Receptor dimerization is generally considered to be the primary signaling event upon binding of a growth factor to its receptor at the cell surface. Little, however, is known about the precise molecular details of ligand-induced receptor dimerization, except for studies of the human growth hormone (hGH) receptor. We have analyzed the binding of epidermal(More)
PD-1, a receptor expressed by T cells, B cells, and monocytes, is a potent regulator of immune responses and a promising therapeutic target. The structure and interactions of human PD-1 are, however, incompletely characterized. We present the solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based structure of the human PD-1 extracellular region and detailed(More)
Heparin is required for fibroblast growth factor (FGF) stimulation of biological responses. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that acidic FGF (aFGF) forms a 1:1 complex with the soluble extracellular domain of FGF receptor (FGFR). Heparin exerts its effect by binding to many molecules of aFGF. The resulting aFGF-heparin complex can bind to(More)