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The mouse Mash-1 gene, like its Drosophila homologs of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C), encodes a transcription factor expressed in neural precursors. We created a null allele of this gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Mice homozygous for the mutation die at birth with apparent breathing and feeding defects. The brain and spinal cord(More)
Development of the vertebrate nervous system requires the actions of transcription factors that establish regional domains of gene expression, which results in the generation of diverse neuronal cell types. MATH1, a transcription factor of the bHLH class, is expressed during development of the nervous system in multiple neuronal domains, including the(More)
The crystal structure of the double-stranded DNA bacteriophage HK97 mature empty capsid was determined at 3.6 angstrom resolution. The 660 angstrom diameter icosahedral particle contains 420 subunits with a new fold. The final capsid maturation step is an autocatalytic reaction that creates 420 isopeptide bonds between proteins. Each subunit is joined to(More)
BACKGROUND RNA-protein interactions stabilize many viruses and also the nucleoprotein cores of enveloped animal viruses (e.g. retroviruses). The nucleoprotein particles are frequently pleomorphic and generally unstable due to the lack of strong protein-protein interactions in their capsids. Principles governing their structures are unknown because crystals(More)
Bacteriophages, herpesviruses, and other large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses contain molecular machines that pump DNA into preassembled procapsids, generating internal capsid pressures exceeding, by 10-fold, that of bottled champagne. A 17 angstrom resolution asymmetric reconstruction of the infectious P22 virion reveals that tightly spooled DNA about(More)
Muscle creatine kinase (MCK) is induced to high levels during skeletal muscle differentiation. We have examined the upstream regulatory elements of the mouse MCK gene which specify its activation during myogenesis in culture. Fusion genes containing up to 3,300 nucleotides (nt) of MCK 5' flanking DNA in various positions and orientations relative to the(More)
We report the first atomic resolution structure of an animal virus, human rhinovirus 14. It is strikingly similar to known icosahedral plant RNA viruses. Four neutralizing immunogenic regions have been identified. These, and corresponding antigenic sequences of polio and foot-and-mouth disease viruses, reside on external protrusions. A large cleft on each(More)
Using monoclonal antibodies, we have examined the expression pattern of MASH1, a basic helix-loop-helix protein that is a mammalian homolog of the Drosophila achaete-scute proteins. In Drosophila, achaete-scute genes are required for the determination of a subset of neurons. In the rat embryo, MASH1 expression is confined to subpopulations of neural(More)
In vertebrates, the peripheral nervous system is embryologically derived from the neural crest. Although the earliest neural crest cells seem to be multipotent, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the restriction of these cells to different sublineages are not understood. We therefore searched for developmental control genes expressed in crest cells or(More)
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines results in severe yield losses. Resistant cultivars offer the most-effective protection against yield losses but resistant cultivars such as ’Forrest’ and ’Pyramid’ vary in the nature of their response to SDS. Loci underlying SDS resistance in ’Essex’ ×(More)