John E. Gimnig

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High coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in Asembo and low coverage in Seme, two adjacent communities in western Nyanza Province, Kenya; followed by expanded coverage of bed nets in Seme, as the Kenya national malaria programme rolled out; provided a natural experiment for quantification of changes in relative abundance of two primary malaria vectors(More)
Spatial analyses of the effect of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on nearby households both with and without ITNs was performed in the context of a large-scale, group-randomized, controlled mortality trial in Asembo, western Kenya. Results illustrate a protective effect of ITNs on compounds lacking ITNs located within 300 meters of(More)
A longitudinal survey of mosquito larval habitats was carried out in Asembo Bay, western Kenya, during the rainy season of 1998. All pools of standing water along a 700-m transect were sampled twice per week. For each habitat, eight environmental variables were recorded and a sample of anopheline larvae was collected for identification. In total, 1,751(More)
1 Biomedical and Environmental Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, 2 Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 3 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America, 4 International Development(More)
Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) significantly reduce malaria vector populations. Susceptibility to ITNs differs by vector species, and culicine mosquitoes have not been shown to be significantly affected by the use of ITNs. We examined the impact of 2-4 yr of ITN use on malaria vector species distribution and culicine mosquitoes. Routine entomological(More)
Adherence with permethrin-treated bed net (ITN) use and their proper deployment was directly observed in 2,178 individuals (784 households) participating in a large-scale trial of ITNs on child mortality in western Kenya. The ITNs were distributed free of charge to ensure high coverage, resulting in a ratio of 1.46 persons per ITN. Approximately 30% of ITNs(More)
The growth and development of Anopheles gambiae Giles larvae were studied in artificial habitats in western Kenya. Larvae responded to increasing densities by extending their development time and by emerging as smaller adults, although survival was not significantly affected. Addition of nutrients in the form of cow dung collected near the study site had no(More)
Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in(More)
BACKGROUND Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are highly effective tools for controlling malaria transmission in Africa because the most important vectors, from the Anopheles gambiae complex and the A. funestus group, usually prefer biting humans indoors at night. METHODS Matched surveys of mosquito and human behaviour from(More)
The productivity of larval habitats of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae for pupae (the stage preceding adult metamorphosis) is poorly known, yet adult emergence from habitats is the primary determinant of vector density. To assess it, we used absolute sampling methods in four studies involving daily sampling for 25 days in 6 habitat types in a village(More)