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Chloroplast division in plant cells is orchestrated by a complex macromolecular machine with components positioned on both the inner and outer envelope surfaces. The only plastid division proteins identified to date are of endosymbiotic origin and are localized inside the organelle. Employing positional cloning methods in Arabidopsis in conjunction with a(More)
Replication of chloroplasts is essential for achieving and maintaining optimal plastid numbers in plant cells. The plastid division machinery contains components of both endosymbiotic and host cell origin, but little is known about the regulation and molecular mechanisms that govern the division process. The Arabidopsis mutant arc6 is defective in plastid(More)
During plastid division, the dynamin-related protein ACCUMULATION AND REPLICATION OF CHLOROPLASTS5 (ARC5) is recruited from the cytosol to the surface of the outer chloroplast envelope membrane. In Arabidopsis thaliana arc5 mutants, chloroplasts arrest during division site constriction. Analysis of mutants similar to arc5 along with map-based cloning(More)
A chloroplastic outer envelope membrane protein of 75 kDa (OEP75) was identified previously as a component of the protein import machinery. Here we provide additional evidence that OEP75 is a component of protein import, present the isolation of a cDNA clone encoding this protein, briefly describe its developmental expression and tissue specificity, and(More)
Chloroplast division is driven by a macromolecular complex containing components that are positioned on the cytosolic surface of the outer envelope, the stromal surface of the inner envelope, and in the intermembrane space. The only constituents of the division apparatus identified thus far are the tubulin-like proteins FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, which colocalize to(More)
Apicomplexan parasites possess a plastid-like organelle called the apicoplast. Most proteins in the Toxoplasma gondii apicoplast are encoded in the nucleus and imported post-translationally. T. gondii apicoplast proteins often have a long N-terminal extension that directs the protein to the apicoplast. It can be modeled as a bipartite targeting sequence(More)
PURPOSE To assess the reliability of electron beam computed tomography (CT) in the detection of calcific deposits in coronary arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS The authors quantitatively evaluated a total of 4,298 segments of coronary arteries with electron beam CT and histomorphometry. RESULTS Regression analysis of the electron beam CT calcium score(More)
Two genes (DGD1 and DGD2) are involved in the synthesis of the chloroplast lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG). The role of DGD2 for galactolipid synthesis was studied by isolating Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutant alleles (dgd2-1 and dgd2-2) and generating the double mutant line dgd1 dgd2. Whereas the growth and lipid composition of dgd2 were not(More)
Molecular chaperones are required for the translocation of many proteins across organellar membranes, presumably by providing energy in the form of ATP hydrolysis for protein movement. In the chloroplast protein import system, a heat shock protein 100 (Hsp100), known as Hsp93, is hypothesized to be the chaperone providing energy for precursor translocation,(More)
Allene oxide synthase (AOS) and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) are related cytochrome P450s that metabolize a common fatty acid hydroperoxide substrate to different classes of bioactive oxylipins within chloroplasts. Here, we report the use of in vitro import assays to investigate the targeting of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) AOS (LeAOS) and HPL (LeHPL) to(More)