John E. Froehlich

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Replication of chloroplasts is essential for achieving and maintaining optimal plastid numbers in plant cells. The plastid division machinery contains components of both endosymbiotic and host cell origin, but little is known about the regulation and molecular mechanisms that govern the division process. The Arabidopsis mutant arc6 is defective in plastid(More)
Glycolysis is a ubiquitous pathway thought to be essential for the production of oil in developing seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and oil crops. Compartmentation of primary metabolism in developing embryos poses a significant challenge for testing this hypothesis and for the engineering of seed biomass production. It also raises the question whether there is(More)
Medium-length methylketones (C7-C15) are highly effective in protecting plants from numerous pests. We used a biochemical genomics approach to elucidate the pathway leading to synthesis of methylketones in the glandular trichomes of the wild tomato Lycopersicon hirsutum f glabratum (accession PI126449). A comparison of gland EST databases from accession(More)
Phosphatidate (PA) is a central metabolite of lipid metabolism and a signaling molecule in many eukaryotes, including plants. Mutations in a permease-like protein, TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL1 (TGD1), in Arabidopsis thaliana caused the accumulation of triacylglycerols, oligogalactolipids, and PA. Chloroplast lipids were altered in their fatty acid(More)
The biosynthesis of phosphatidylglycerol represents a central pathway in lipid metabolism in all organisms. The enzyme catalyzing the first reaction of the pathway in the plastid, glycerol-3-phosphate acyl-acyl carrier protein acyltransferase, is thought to be encoded in Arabidopsis by the ATS1 locus. A number of genetic mutants deficient in this activity(More)
A comprehensive understanding of the lipid and fatty acid metabolic machinery is needed for optimizing production of oils and fatty acids for fuel, industrial feedstocks and nutritional improvement in plants. T-DNA mutants in the poorly annotated Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g08640 were identified as containing moderately high levels (50-100%) of 16∶1Δ7 and(More)
Polar membrane glycerolipids occur in a mixture of molecular species defined by a polar head group and characteristic acyl groups esterified to a glycerol backbone. A molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol specific to chloroplasts of plants carries a Delta(3-trans) hexadecenoic acid in the sn-2 position of its core glyceryl moiety. The fad4-1 mutant of(More)
In plants, chlorophylls and other tetrapyrroles are synthesized from a branched pathway that is located within chloroplasts. GUN4 (GENOMES UNCOUPLED 4) stimulates chlorophyll biosynthesis by activating Mg-chelatase, the enzyme that commits porphyrins to the chlorophyll branch. GUN4 stimulates Mg-chelatase by a mechanism that involves binding the ChlH(More)
Diacylglycerol (DAG) is an intermediate in metabolism of both triacylglycerols and membrane lipids. Probing the steady-state pools of DAG and understanding how they contribute to the synthesis of different lipids is important when designing plants with altered lipid metabolism. However, traditional methods of assaying DAG pools are difficult, because its(More)
The thylakoid proton motive force (pmf) generated during photosynthesis is the essential driving force for ATP production; it is also a central regulator of light capture and electron transfer. We investigated the effects of elevated pmf on photosynthesis in a library of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with altered rates of thylakoid lumen proton efflux,(More)