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Autophagy and the effects of its inhibition or induction were investigated during the entire infectious cycle of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a human herpesvirus. As a baseline, we first enumerated the number of autophagosomes per cell after VZV infection compared with the number after induction of autophagy following serum starvation or treatment with(More)
Insulin degradation enzyme (IDE) is a 110-kDa zinc metalloprotease found in the cytosol of all cells. IDE degrades insulin and a variety of small proteins including amyloid-beta. Recently, IDE has been proposed as the receptor for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) attachment. During our reassessment, some of the original studies were repeated and expanded in(More)
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is renowned for its very low titer when grown in cultured cells. There remains no single explanation for the low infectivity. In this study, viral particles on the surfaces of infected cells were examined by several imaging technologies. Few surface particles were detected at 48 h postinfection (hpi), but numerous particles were(More)
Autophagy is a recently recognized component of the life cycle of varicella-zoster virus (VZV). We have documented abundant autophagosome formation in skin vesicles (final site of virion assembly) from randomly selected cases of varicella and zoster. The fact that autophagy was an early event in the VZV replication cycle was documented by finding infected(More)
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) binds peptide and has several functions that include protein folding, protein trafficking, and involvement with immune function. However, endogenous Hsp70-binding peptides had not previously been identified. Therefore, we eluted and identified several hundred endogenously bound peptides from Hsp70 using liquid chromatography(More)
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is renowned for its low titers. Yet investigations to explore the low infectivity are hampered by the fact that the VZV particle-to-PFU ratio has never been determined with precision. Herein, we accomplish that task by applying newer imaging technology. More than 300 images were taken of VZV-infected cells on 4 different samples(More)
OBJECTIVE Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection may trigger the inflammatory cascade that characterizes giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded GCA-positive temporal artery (TA) biopsies (50 sections/TA) including adjacent skeletal muscle and normal TAs obtained postmortem from subjects >50 years of age were examined by(More)
Autophagy has been intensively studied in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a human alphaherpesvirus. The HSV-1 genome encodes a well-known neurovirulence protein called ICP34.5. When the gene encoding this protein is deleted from the genome, the virus is markedly less virulent when injected into the brains of animal models. Subsequent characterization(More)
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the first of the human herpesviruses to be attenuated and subsequently approved as a live vaccine to prevent varicella and herpes zoster. Both the attenuated VZV vaccine, called vaccine Oka or vOka, and the parental strain pOka have been completely sequenced. Yet the specific determinants of attenuation are uncertain. The(More)
The VZV genome is smaller than the HSV genome and only encodes nine glycoproteins. This chapter provides an overview of three VZV glycoproteins: gH (ORF37), gL (ORF60), and gC (ORF14). All three glycoproteins are highly conserved among the alpha herpesviruses. However, VZV gC exhibits unexpected differences from its HSV counterpart gC. In particular, both(More)