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Amid growing evidence that numerous viral infections can produce immunopathology, including nonspecific polyclonal lymphocyte activation, the need to test the direct impact of an infecting virus on the immune system of the host is crucial. This can best be tested in the isolator piglet model in which maternal and other extrinsic influences can be excluded.(More)
The expressed porcine VH genes belong to the VH3 family (clan), four of which, VHA, VHB, VHC, and VHE, alone comprise approximately 80% of the preimmune repertoire. However, so-called "hybrid" VH genes that use CDR1 of one VH gene and the CDR2 of another are frequently encountered. We studied > 3000 cloned VDJs and found that such hybrids can contribute up(More)
The epitheliochorial placenta of swine is considered a barrier to Ag and selective transport of IgG, so this species should be an excellent model with which to determine whether switch recombination is Ag dependent. Analysis of Ig levels and Ig isotype profiles in >150 normal and virus-infected fetuses from 38-110 days of gestation (DG) suggested that IgG,(More)
Birth in all higher vertebrates is at the center of the critical window of development in which newborns transition from dependence on innate immunity to dependence on their own adaptive immunity, with passive maternal immunity bridging this transition. Therefore we have studied immunological development through fetal and early neonatal life. In swine, B(More)
VDJ rearrangement and VH gene usage during fetal development in 35 outbred piglets was examined by PCR amplification of VDJs; VDJs were subsequently characterized by hybridization with VH-specific gene probes and by sequencing. VDJ rearrangement was first seen in the fetal liver on day 30 of a 114-day gestation. Four VH genes (V(H)A, V(H)B, V(H)C, and(More)
Since the actual combinatorial diversity in the V(H) repertoire in fetal piglets represents <1% of the potential in mice and humans, we wondered whether 1) complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) diversity was also restricted; 2) CDR3 diversity changed with fetal age; and 3) to what extent CDR3 contributed to the preimmune VDJ repertoire. CDR3(More)
B cell lymphogenesis in mammals occurs in various tissues during development but it is generally accepted that it operates by the same mechanism in all tissues. We show that in swine, the frequency of in-frame (IF) VDJ rearrangements differs among yolk sac, fetal liver, spleen, early thymus, bone marrow, and late thymus. All VDJ rearrangements recovered and(More)
In this study, we have mapped the 3' H chain V region (V(H)) genes and those in the H chain diversity, H chain joining, and 5' portion of the H chain constant locus. We show that swine possess only two functional H chain diversity segments and only one functional H chain joining segment. These data help to explain more than a decade of observations on the(More)
Acknowledgements: We would like to thank the journal editors and reviewers for their valuable comments as well as the support of the research fund (G-YG74) by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. ABSTRACT Complex information technologies (CITs), such as ERP packages, have become the core component of modern organizations. Corporate investments in CITs have(More)