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Selective visual attention describes the tendency of visual processing to be confined largely to stimuli that are relevant to behavior. It is among the most fundamental of cognitive functions, particularly in humans and other primates for whom vision is the dominant sense. We review recent progress in identifying the neural mechanisms of selective visual(More)
A new theory of search and visual attention is presented. Results support neither a distinction between serial and parallel search nor between search for features and conjunctions. For all search materials, instead, difficulty increases with increased similarity of targets to nontargets and decreasedsimilarity between nontargets, producing a continuum of(More)
  • John Duncan
  • Journal of experimental psychology. General
  • 1984
Theories of visual attention deal with the limit on our ability to see (and later report) several things at once. These theories fall into three broad classes. Object-based theories propose a limit on the number of separate objects that can be perceived simultaneously. Discrimination-based theories propose a limit on the number of separate discriminations(More)
Though many neuroscientific methods have been brought to bear in the search for functional specializations within prefrontal cortex, little consensus has emerged. To assess the contribution of functional neuroimaging, this article reviews patterns of frontal-lobe activation associated with a broad range of different cognitive demands, including aspects of(More)
A common or multiple-demand (MD) pattern of frontal and parietal activity is associated with diverse cognitive demands, and with standard tests of fluid intelligence. In intelligent behaviour, goals are achieved by assembling a series of sub-tasks, creating structured mental programs. Single cell and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data(More)
820 | NOVEMBER 2001 | VOLUME 2 www.nature.com/reviews/neuro There is much evidence that the prefrontal cortex makes a vital contribution to effective, organized behaviour. Patients with prefrontal lesions can show a broad loosening in the structure of thought and action: the normal picture, a coherent sequence of actions and mental activities that allow the(More)
We often search for a face in a crowd or for a particular object in a cluttered environment. In this type of visual search, memory interacts with attention: the mediating neural mechanisms should include a stored representation of the object and a means for selecting that object from among others in the scene. Here we test whether neurons in inferior(More)
Responses of neurons in inferior temporal cortex during memory-guided visual search. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 2918-2940, 1998. A typical scene will contain many different objects, few of which are relevant to behavior at any given moment. Thus attentional mechanisms are needed to select relevant objects for visual processing and control over behavior. We(More)
Threat-related stimuli are strong competitors for attention, particularly in anxious individuals. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with healthy human volunteers to study how the processing of threat-related distractors is controlled and whether this alters as anxiety levels increase. Our work builds upon prior analyses of the cognitive(More)
Universal positive correlations between different cognitive tests motivate the concept of "general intelligence" or Spearman's g. Here the neural basis for g is investigated by means of positron emission tomography. Spatial, verbal, and perceptuo-motor tasks with high-g involvement are compared with matched low-g control tasks. In contrast to the common(More)