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Myotonic dystrophy (DM), the most common form of muscular dystrophy in adults, can be caused by a mutation on either chromosome 19q13 (DM1) or 3q21 (DM2/PROMM). DM1 is caused by a CTG expansion in the 3' untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase gene (DMPK). Several mechanisms have been invoked to explain how this mutation, which does(More)
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the only disease reported to be caused by a CTG expansion. We now report that a non-coding CTG expansion causes a novel form of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA8). This expansion, located on chromosome 13q21, was isolated directly from the genomic DNA of an ataxia patient by RAPID cloning. SCA8 patients have expansions similar in size(More)
Well, someone can decide by themselves what they want to do and need to do but sometimes, that kind of person will need some patterns in network architecture a return to fundamentals references. People with open minded will always try to seek for the new things and information from many sources. On the contrary, people with closed mind will always think(More)
We have discovered that beta-III spectrin (SPTBN2) mutations cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) in an 11-generation American kindred descended from President Lincoln's grandparents and two additional families. Two families have separate in-frame deletions of 39 and 15 bp, and a third family has a mutation in the actin/ARP1 binding region. Beta-III(More)
BACKGROUND Myotonic dystrophy types 1 (DM1) and 2 (DM2/proximal myotonic myopathy PROMM) are dominantly inherited disorders with unusual multisystemic clinical features. The authors have characterized the clinical and molecular features of DM2/PROMM, which is caused by a CCTG repeat expansion in intron 1 of the zinc finger protein 9 (ZNF9) gene. METHODS(More)
We previously reported that a (CTG)n expansion causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 (SCA8), a slowly progressive ataxia with reduced penetrance. We now report a transgenic mouse model in which the full-length human SCA8 mutation is transcribed using its endogenous promoter. (CTG)116 expansion, but not (CTG)11 control lines, develop a progressive(More)
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita showed the vulnerability of coastal communities and how human activities that caused deterioration of the Mississippi Deltaic Plain (MDP) exacerbated this vulnerability. The MDP formed by dynamic interactions between river and coast at various temporal and spatial scales, and human activity has reduced these interactions at all(More)
This position paper outlines a new network architecture that is based on the fundamental principle that <i>networking is interprocess communication</i> (IPC). In this model, application processes (APes) communicate via an IPC facility. The IPC processes that make up this facility provide a protocol that implements an IPC mechanism, and a protocol for(More)
Mutations in the DMD gene, encoding the dystrophin protein, are responsible for the dystrophinopathies Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD), and X-linked Dilated Cardiomyopathy (XLDC). Mutation analysis has traditionally been challenging, due to the large gene size (79 exons over 2.2 Mb of genomic DNA). We report a very large(More)