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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
PSD-95 is a major scaffolding protein of the postsynaptic density, tethering NMDA- and AMPA-type glutamate receptors to signaling proteins and the neuronal cytoskeleton. Here we show that PSD-95 is regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PSD-95 interacts with and is ubiquitinated by the E3 ligase Mdm2. In response to NMDA receptor activation, PSD-95(More)
Compartmentalization of glutamate receptors with the signaling enzymes that regulate their activity supports synaptic transmission. Two classes of binding proteins organize these complexes: the MAGUK proteins that cluster glutamate receptors and AKAPs that anchor kinases and phosphatases. In this report, we demonstrate that glutamate receptors and PKA are(More)
The cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel is a textbook example of an ion channel regulated by protein phosphorylation; however, the molecular events that underlie its regulation remain unknown. Here, we report that in transiently transfected HEK293 cells expressing L-type channels, elevations in cAMP resulted in phosphorylation of the alpha1C and beta2a channel(More)
Cellular asymmetry is critical for the development of multicellular organisms. Here we show that homologues of proteins necessary for asymmetric cell division in Caenorhabditis elegans associate with each other in mammalian cells and tissues. mPAR-3 and mPAR-6 exhibit similar expression patterns and subcellular distributions in the CNS and associate through(More)
Specificity of protein kinases and phosphatases may be achieved through compartmentalization with preferred substrates. In neurons, adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is localized at postsynaptic densities by association of its regulatory subunit with an A kinase anchor protein, AKAP79. Interaction cloning experiments(More)
WAVE1--the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)--family verprolin homologous protein 1--is a key regulator of actin-dependent morphological processes in mammals, through its ability to activate the actin-related protein (Arp2/3) complex. Here we show that WAVE1 is phosphorylated at multiple sites by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) both in vitro and in(More)
Regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity by kinases and phosphatases contributes to the modulation of synaptic transmission. Targeting of these enzymes near the substrate is proposed to enhance phosphorylation-dependent modulation. Yotiao, an NMDA receptor-associated protein, bound the type I protein phosphatase (PP1) and the adenosine(More)
BACKGROUND 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine. RESULTS We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170(More)
Postsynaptic densities (PSD) are a network of proteins located on the internal surface of excitatory synapses just inside the postsynaptic membrane. Enzymes associated with the PSD are optimally positioned to respond to signals transduced across the postsynaptic membrane resulting from excitatory synaptic transmission or neurotransmitter release. We present(More)