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Long bone loading histories are commonly evaluated using a beam model by calculating cross-sectional second moments of areas (SMAs). Without in vivo strain data, SMA analyses commonly make two explicit or implicit assumptions. First, while it has long been known that axial compression superimposed on bending shifts neutral axes away from cross-sectional(More)
How bones respond dynamically to mechanical loading through changes in shape and structure is poorly understood, particularly with respect to variations between bones. Structurally, cortical bones adapt in vivo to their mechanical environments primarily by modulating two processes, modeling and Haversian remodeling. Modeling, defined here as the addition of(More)
One trait that distinguishes the walking gaits of most primates from those of most mammalian nonprimates is the distribution of weight between the forelimbs and hindlimbs. Nonprimate mammals generally experience higher vertical peak substrate reaction forces on the forelimb than on the hindlimb. Primates, in contrast, generally experience higher vertical(More)
When compared to other hominids--great apes including humans--the human pelvis reveals a fundamental reorganization of bony morphology comprised of multiple trait-level changes, many of which are associated with bipedal locomotion. Establishing how patterns of integration--correlations and covariances among traits--within the pelvis have evolved in concert(More)
The cross-sectional properties of mammalian limb bones provide an important source of information about their loading history and locomotor adaptations. It has been suggested, for instance, that the cross-sectional strength of primate limb bones differs from that of other mammals as a consequence of living in a complex arboreal environment (Kimura, 1991,(More)
BACKGROUND Injuries to the lower extremity often cause limitations to joint motion and alter movement patterns of limb segments during gait. We hypothesized that complexity and variability of limb segment motion during gait would increase in both limbs due to unilateral injury. Using simulated injury to generate asymmetric gait, we developed new methods to(More)
  • J D Polk
  • 2002
Broad allometric studies of the musculoskeletal system have frequently sought to explain how locomotor variables have been influenced by body mass. To examine animals that vary widely in body mass, these studies have included taxa that differ in their locomotor adaptations and phylogenetic relatedness. Because these sources of diversity could obscure the(More)
BACKGROUND Traditional parameters used to assess gait asymmetries, e.g., joint range of motion or symmetry indices, fail to provide insight regarding timing and magnitude of movement deviations among lower limb joints during the gait cycle. This study evaluated the efficacy of a new approach for quantifying aspects of gait asymmetry. METHODS Asymmetric(More)
We present a review of novel techniques developed by our research group to improve quantitative assessment of human movement, especially assessments related to symmetric and asymmetric gait patterns. These new methods use motion capture data of the lower limb joints (e.g., joint and body segment angular position and/or velocity, or joint center locations)(More)
The primate body hosts trillions of microbes. Interactions between primate hosts and these microbes profoundly affect primate physiology, reproduction, health, survival, and ultimately, evolution. It is increasingly clear that primate health cannot be understood fully without knowledge of host-microbial interactions. Our goals here are to review what is(More)