John D. Pickard

Learn More
We investigated large-scale systems organization of the whole human brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired from healthy volunteers in a no-task or 'resting' state. Images were parcellated using a prior anatomical template, yielding regional mean time series for each of 90 regions (major cortical gyri and subcortical nuclei)(More)
We analyzed the properties of the logarithm of the Rician distribution leading to a full characterization of the probability law of the errors in the linearized diffusion tensor model. An almost complete lack of bias, a simple relation between the variance and the signal-to-noise ratio in the original complex data, and a close approximation to normality(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic subdural haematoma causes serious morbidity and mortality. It recurs after surgical evacuation in 5-30% of patients. Drains might reduce recurrence but are not used routinely. Our aim was to investigate the effect of drains on recurrence rates and clinical outcomes. METHODS We did a randomised controlled trial at one UK centre between(More)
BACKGROUND Patients diagnosed as vegetative have periods of wakefulness, but seem to be unaware of themselves or their environment. Although functional MRI (fMRI) studies have shown that some of these patients are consciously aware, issues of expense and accessibility preclude the use of fMRI assessment in most of these individuals. We aimed to assess(More)
Despite frequent reports of poor concentration following traumatic brain injury, studies have generally failed to find disproportionate time-on-task decrements using vigilance measures in this patient group. Using a rather different definition, neuropsychological and functional imaging research has however linked sustained attention performance to right(More)
A diagnosis of vegetative state is made if a patient demonstrates no evidence of awareness of self or environment, no evidence of sustained, reproducible, purposeful or voluntary behavioural response to sensory stimuli and critically no evidence of language comprehension. For those patients who retain peripheral motor function, rigorous behavioural(More)
Hydrocephalus is far more complicated than a simple disorder of CSF circulation. Historically, it has been diagnosed using clinical and psychomotor assessment plus brain imaging. The role of physiological measurement to aid diagnosis becomes more appreciated in current clinical practice. This has been reflected by recently formulated guidelines for the(More)
OBJECTIVE To use a range of techniques to explore diffusion limitation as a mechanism of cellular hypoxia in the setting of head injury. DESIGN A prospective interventional study. SETTING A specialist neurocritical care unit. PATIENTS Thirteen patients within 7 days of closed head injury underwent imaging studies. Tissue for ultrastructural studies(More)
The vegetative (VS) and minimally conscious (MCS) states are currently distinguished on the basis of exhibited behaviour rather than underlying pathology. Although previous histopathological studies have documented different degrees of diffuse axonal injury as well as damage to the thalami and brainstem regions in VS and MCS, these differences have not been(More)
OBJECTIVES To define optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPOPT) in individual head-injured patients using continuous monitoring of cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. To test the hypothesis that patients with poor outcome were managed at a cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) differing more from their CPPOPT than were patients with good outcome. DESIGN(More)