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We investigated large-scale systems organization of the whole human brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired from healthy volunteers in a no-task or 'resting' state. Images were parcellated using a prior anatomical template, yielding regional mean time series for each of 90 regions (major cortical gyri and subcortical nuclei)(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic subdural haematoma causes serious morbidity and mortality. It recurs after surgical evacuation in 5-30% of patients. Drains might reduce recurrence but are not used routinely. Our aim was to investigate the effect of drains on recurrence rates and clinical outcomes. METHODS We did a randomised controlled trial at one UK centre between(More)
A diagnosis of vegetative state is made if a patient demonstrates no evidence of awareness of self or environment, no evidence of sustained, reproducible, purposeful or voluntary behavioural response to sensory stimuli and critically no evidence of language comprehension. For those patients who retain peripheral motor function, rigorous behavioural(More)
Despite frequent reports of poor concentration following traumatic brain injury, studies have generally failed to find disproportionate time-on-task decrements using vigilance measures in this patient group. Using a rather different definition, neuropsychological and functional imaging research has however linked sustained attention performance to right(More)
We analyzed the properties of the logarithm of the Rician distribution leading to a full characterization of the probability law of the errors in the linearized diffusion tensor model. An almost complete lack of bias, a simple relation between the variance and the signal-to-noise ratio in the original complex data, and a close approximation to normality(More)
OBJECTIVES To define optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPOPT) in individual head-injured patients using continuous monitoring of cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. To test the hypothesis that patients with poor outcome were managed at a cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) differing more from their CPPOPT than were patients with good outcome. DESIGN(More)
BACKGROUND Patients diagnosed as vegetative have periods of wakefulness, but seem to be unaware of themselves or their environment. Although functional MRI (fMRI) studies have shown that some of these patients are consciously aware, issues of expense and accessibility preclude the use of fMRI assessment in most of these individuals. We aimed to assess(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Statins may improve cerebral vasomotor reactivity through cholesterol-dependent and -independent mechanisms. A phase II randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the hypothesis that acute pravastatin treatment could improve cerebrovascular autoregulation and reduce vasospasm-related complications after aneurysmal(More)
Secondary insults can adversely influence outcome following severe traumatic brain injury. Monitoring of cerebral extracellular chemistry with microdialysis has the potential for early detection of metabolic derangements associated with such events. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the fundamental biochemical markers and(More)
Microdialysis continuously monitors the chemistry of a small focal volume of the cerebral extracellular space. Conversely, positron emission tomography (PET) establishes metabolism of the whole brain, but only for the duration of the scan. The objective of this study was to apply both techniques to head-injured patients simultaneously to assess the relation(More)