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We investigated large-scale systems organization of the whole human brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired from healthy volunteers in a no-task or 'resting' state. Images were parcellated using a prior anatomical template, yielding regional mean time series for each of 90 regions (major cortical gyri and subcortical nuclei)(More)
BACKGROUND The differential diagnosis of disorders of consciousness is challenging. The rate of misdiagnosis is approximately 40%, and new methods are required to complement bedside testing, particularly if the patient's capacity to show behavioral signs of awareness is diminished. METHODS At two major referral centers in Cambridge, United Kingdom, and(More)
A diagnosis of vegetative state is made if a patient demonstrates no evidence of awareness of self or environment, no evidence of sustained, reproducible, purposeful or voluntary behavioural response to sensory stimuli and critically no evidence of language comprehension. For those patients who retain peripheral motor function, rigorous behavioural(More)
BACKGROUND Patients diagnosed as vegetative have periods of wakefulness, but seem to be unaware of themselves or their environment. Although functional MRI (fMRI) studies have shown that some of these patients are consciously aware, issues of expense and accessibility preclude the use of fMRI assessment in most of these individuals. We aimed to assess(More)
Despite frequent reports of poor concentration following traumatic brain injury, studies have generally failed to find disproportionate time-on-task decrements using vigilance measures in this patient group. Using a rather different definition, neuropsychological and functional imaging research has however linked sustained attention performance to right(More)
We analyzed the properties of the logarithm of the Rician distribution leading to a full characterization of the probability law of the errors in the linearized diffusion tensor model. An almost complete lack of bias, a simple relation between the variance and the signal-to-noise ratio in the original complex data, and a close approximation to normality(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Statins may improve cerebral vasomotor reactivity through cholesterol-dependent and -independent mechanisms. A phase II randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the hypothesis that acute pravastatin treatment could improve cerebrovascular autoregulation and reduce vasospasm-related complications after aneurysmal(More)
Persistent vegetative state is arguably one of the least understood and most ethically troublesome neurological conditions in modern medicine. The term describes a rare disorder in which patients who emerge from coma appear to be awake, but show no signs of awareness. In recent years, a number of studies have demonstrated an important role for functional(More)
The vegetative (VS) and minimally conscious (MCS) states are currently distinguished on the basis of exhibited behaviour rather than underlying pathology. Although previous histopathological studies have documented different degrees of diffuse axonal injury as well as damage to the thalami and brainstem regions in VS and MCS, these differences have not been(More)
OBJECT Delayed ischemic deficits (DIDs), a major source of disability following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), are usually associated with severe cerebral vasospasm and impaired autoregulation. Systemic erythropoietin (EPO) therapy has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective properties acting via EPO receptors on cerebrovascular endothelia and(More)