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Following inducible expression in HEK293 cells, the human orexin-1 receptor was targeted to the cell surface but became internalized following exposure to the peptide agonist orexin A. By contrast, constitutive expression of the human cannabinoid CB1 receptor resulted in a predominantly punctate, intracellular distribution pattern consistent with(More)
The basis of the selectivity of fluorochromes routinely used to visualize the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in live cells remains obscure. To clarify this, interactions of living cells with fluorochromes of varied physicochemical properties were analyzed experimentally and numerically using a quantitative structure activity relationship analysis (QSAR).(More)
TUG-891 [3-(4-((4-fluoro-4'-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)methoxy)phenyl)propanoic acid] was recently described as a potent and selective agonist for the long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) receptor 4 (FFA4; previously G protein-coupled receptor 120, or GPR120). Herein, we have used TUG-891 to further define the function of FFA4 and used this compound in proof(More)
Small molecule fluorochromes (synonyms: biosensors, chemosensors, fluorescent probes, vital stains) are widely used to investigate the structure, composition, physicochemical properties and biological functions of living cells, tissues and organisms. Selective entry and accumulation within particular cells and cellular structures are key processes for(More)
Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be(More)
Cellular distribution and binding characteristics of native alpha(1)-adrenoceptors (ARs) were determined in a live, single, human smooth muscle cell (SMC) with confocal laser scanning microscopy and a fluorescent ligand, BODIPY-FL prazosin (QAPB). This allowed single-cell competitive ligand binding and showed that 40% of alpha(1)-AR-binding sites in native(More)
Approaches to identify G protein-coupled receptor oligomers rather than dimers have been lacking. Using concatamers of fluorescent proteins, we established conditions to monitor sequential three-color fluorescence resonance energy transfer (3-FRET) and used these to detect oligomeric complexes of the alpha(1b)-adrenoceptor in single living cells. Mutation(More)
Agonist-induced internalization was observed for both inducible and constitutively expressed forms of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor. These were also internalized by the peptide orexin A, which has no direct affinity for the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor, but only when the orexin OX(1) receptor was co-expressed along with the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor. This(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Many G protein-coupled receptors internalize following agonist binding. The studies were designed to identify novel means to effectively quantify this process using the orexin OX(1) receptor and the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor as exemplars. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The human OX(1) and CB(1) receptors were modified to incorporate both(More)
The histamine H1 receptor and the alpha1b-adrenoreceptor are G protein-coupled receptors that elevate intracellular [Ca2+] via activation of Gq/G11. Assessed by co-immunoprecipitation and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer they both exist as homo-dimers. The addition of the G protein G11alpha to the C terminus of these receptors did not(More)