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Molecular evolution and chemical genetics have been applied to generate functional pairings of mutated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and nonendogenous ligands. These mutant receptors, referred to as receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands (RASSLs) or designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs), have huge potential to(More)
Following inducible expression in HEK293 cells, the human orexin-1 receptor was targeted to the cell surface but became internalized following exposure to the peptide agonist orexin A. By contrast, constitutive expression of the human cannabinoid CB1 receptor resulted in a predominantly punctate, intracellular distribution pattern consistent with(More)
Agonist-induced internalization was observed for both inducible and constitutively expressed forms of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor. These were also internalized by the peptide orexin A, which has no direct affinity for the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor, but only when the orexin OX(1) receptor was co-expressed along with the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor. This(More)
There is no published description of the distribution of free Ca2+, nor of the distribution of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity associated with the maintenance of low axoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations, in normal central myelinated nerve fibres. We have used the oxalate-pyroantimonate technique to localise free Ca2+, together with the lead-citrate technique to localise(More)
AIMS To compare the constitutive and agonist-dependent endosomal trafficking of α(1A)- and α(1B)-adrenoceptors (ARs) and to establish if the internalization pattern determines the signaling pathways of each subtype. METHODS Using CypHer5 technology and VSV-G epitope tagged α(1A)- and α(1B)-ARs stably and transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells, we analyzed(More)
Anti-GM1 ganglioside autoantibodies are used as diagnostic markers for motor axonal peripheral neuropathies and are believed to be the primary mediators of such diseases. However, their ability to bind and exert pathogenic effects at neuronal membranes is highly inconsistent. Using human and mouse monoclonal anti-GM1 antibodies to probe the GM1-rich motor(More)
A wide range of techniques have been employed to examine the quaternary structure of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Although it is well established that homo-dimerisation is common, recent studies have sought to explore the physical basis of these interactions and the role of dimerisation in signal transduction. Growing evidence hints at the existence(More)
In the Guillain-Barré syndrome subform acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), Campylobacter jejuni enteritis triggers the production of anti-ganglioside Abs (AGAbs), leading to immune-mediated injury of distal motor nerves. An important question has been whether injury to the presynaptic neuron at the neuromuscular junction is a major factor in AMAN.(More)
Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be(More)
The questions of whether G protein-coupled receptors exist as monomers, dimers, and/or oligomers and if these species interconvert in a ligand-dependent manner are among the most contentious current issues in biology. When employing spatial intensity distribution analysis to laser scanning confocal microscope images of cells stably expressing either a(More)