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For over a century, numerous undocumented reports have appeared about unusual large-scale luminous phenomena above thunderclouds and, more than 80 years ago, it was suggested that an electrical discharge could bridge the gap between a thundercloud and the upper atmosphere. Since then, two classes of vertically extensive optical flashes above thunderclouds(More)
Lange, Westlake & Spence (1976) used the assumption of multivariate normality to apply a likelihood method to the analysis of quantitative traits measured over pedigrees. We now introduce a test of the assumption of multivariate normality and methods for the detection of outlying families and outlying individuals. We also introduce a method for the(More)
The 1980 cohort of the Australian Twin Registry contains 3808 pairs of twins, 258 of whom self reported a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in one or both subjects. Seventy two pairs were lost to follow up by 1990. The remaining 186 pairs received a self administered questionnaire, followed, if necessary, by telephone interviews to them, their general(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the cancer risk in children and adolescents following exposure to low dose ionising radiation from diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans. DESIGN Population based, cohort, data linkage study in Australia. COHORT MEMBERS: 10.9 million people identified from Australian Medicare records, aged 0-19 years on 1 January 1985 or born(More)
The occurrence of self-reported asthma/wheezing and hay fever among 3,808 pairs of twins from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Twin Registry was examined for evidence of genetic transmission by path analytic methods. The cumulative prevalence of asthma or wheezing was 13.2% and of hay fever, 32%. There were significant(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical attack rate of influenza is influenced by prior immunity and mixing patterns in the host population, and also by the proportion of infections that are asymptomatic. This complexity makes it difficult to directly estimate R(0) from the attack rate, contributing to uncertainty in epidemiological models to guide pandemic planning. We(More)
The current pandemic threat can be best understood within an ecological framework that takes account of the history of past pandemics caused by influenza A, the relationships between pandemic and seasonal spread of influenza viruses, and the importance of immunity and behavioural responses in human populations. Isolated populations without recent exposure(More)
BACKGROUND The ecology of influenza may be more complex than is usually assumed. For example, despite multiple waves in the influenza pandemic of 1918-19, many people in urban locations were apparently unaffected. Were they unexposed, or protected by pre-existing cross-immunity in the first wave, by acquired immunity in later waves, or were their infections(More)
A high infestation of the monogenean Gussevia tucunarense in a cultivation of bujurqui-tucunare was reported. The prevalence was 100%. The mean intensity and abundance of the parasite was 164.4 of parasites per individual. This is the first report of a high infestation by G. tucunarense in C. semifasciatus cultured from the Peruvian Amazon.