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Lange, Westlake & Spence (1976) used the assumption of multivariate normality to apply a likelihood method to the analysis of quantitative traits measured over pedigrees. We now introduce a test of the assumption of multivariate normality and methods for the detection of outlying families and outlying individuals. We also introduce a method for the(More)
For over a century, numerous undocumented reports have appeared about unusual large-scale luminous phenomena above thunderclouds and, more than 80 years ago, it was suggested that an electrical discharge could bridge the gap between a thundercloud and the upper atmosphere. Since then, two classes of vertically extensive optical flashes above thunderclouds(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the cancer risk in children and adolescents following exposure to low dose ionising radiation from diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans. DESIGN Population based, cohort, data linkage study in Australia. COHORT MEMBERS: 10.9 million people identified from Australian Medicare records, aged 0-19 years on 1 January 1985 or born(More)
The authors examined cancer mortality in a historical cohort study of 21,863 male and female workers in 36 cohorts exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins in 12 countries. Subjects in this updated and expanded multinational study coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer were followed from 1939 to 1992. Exposure was(More)
The authors studied noncancer mortality among phenoxyacid herbicide and chlorophenol production workers and sprayers included in an international study comprising 36 cohorts from 12 countries followed from 1939 to 1992. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or higher chlorinated dioxins (TCDD/HCD) was discerned from job records and company(More)
HLA and Gm phenotypes were compared in 53 patients with unequivocal systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and in 180 healthy subjects. SLE was associated with HLA-B8 (relative risk (RR) = 3.5, P less than 0.001) and with HLA-DR3 (RR = 2.8, P less than 0.01). There was an increased risk of SLE with HLA-B8/B27 (RR = 27.6) and with HLA-B15/B35 (RR greater than(More)
The 1980 cohort of the Australian Twin Registry contains 3808 pairs of twins, 258 of whom self reported a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in one or both subjects. Seventy two pairs were lost to follow up by 1990. The remaining 186 pairs received a self administered questionnaire, followed, if necessary, by telephone interviews to them, their general(More)
BACKGROUND For children at high risk of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), strategies to prevent acute otitis media with perforation (AOMwiP) may reduce progression to CSOM. METHODS In a double blind study in northern Australia, 103 Aboriginal infants with first detection of OME were randomised to receive either amoxicillin (50 mg/kg/d BD) or(More)
BACKGROUND Poppers are a recreational substance of abuse belonging to the alkyl nitrite family of compounds. In the United Kingdom, where they are legal to purchase but illegal to sell for human consumption, 10% of the general population have tried them. They are considered low risk to physical and mental health. Two recent case series from France(More)