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We present a straightforward process for the discovery of novel back pocket-binding fragment molecules against protein tyrosine kinases. The approach begins by screening against the nonphosphorylated target kinase with subsequent counterscreening of hits against the phosphorylated enzyme. Back pocket-binding fragments are inactive against the phosphorylated(More)
The discovery and optimization of a series of 4-aminocinnoline-3-carboxamide inhibitors of Bruton's tyrosine kinase are reported. A fragment-based screening approach incorporating X-ray co-crystallography was used to identify a cinnoline fragment and characterize its binding mode in the ATP binding site of Btk. Optimization of the fragment hit resulted in(More)
The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signal transduction cascade plays an important role in the regulation of critical cellular processes such as cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The up-regulation of this pathway can negatively affect cell homeostasis and is responsible for the development of various forms of cancer and inflammation processes. Therefore,(More)
The MAPK signaling cascade, comprised of several linear and intersecting pathways, propagates signaling into the nucleus resulting in cytokine and chemokine release. The Map Kinase Kinase isoforms 3 and 6 (MKK3 and MKK6) are responsible for the phosphorylation and activation of p38, and are hypothesized to play a key role in regulating this pathway without(More)
Computers and computing are topics of discussion in many curriculum areas in seconary school. The four courses recommended by this task group, however, have computing as their primary content. The courses are: i) Introduction to Computer Science I (a full year course) 2) Introduction to Computer Science II (a full year course) 3) Introduction to a(More)
S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (AHCY) catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) to adenosine and l-homocysteine. This enzyme is frequently overexpressed in many tumor types and is considered to be a validated anti-tumor target. In order to enable the development of small molecule AHCY inhibitors as targeted cancer therapeutics we(More)
Receptor tyrosine kinase therapies have proven to be efficacious in specific cancer patient populations; however, a significant limitation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment is the emergence of resistance mechanisms leading to a transient, partial, or complete lack of response. Combination therapies using agents with synergistic activity have(More)
Methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) is an enzyme that cleaves an N-terminal methionine residue from a number of newly synthesized proteins. Pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that MetAP2 inhibitors could be used as a novel treatment for obesity. Herein we describe our use of fragment screening methods and structural biology to quickly identify and(More)
Methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP2) is an enzyme that cleaves an N-terminal methionine residue from a number of newly synthesized proteins. This step is required before they will fold or function correctly. Pre-clinical and clinical studies with a MetAP2 inhibitor suggest that they could be used as a novel treatment for obesity. Herein we describe the(More)
Computers and computing are topics of discussion in many curriculum areas in secondary school. The four courses recommended by this task group, however, have computing as their primary content. The courses are:<list><item>Introduction to Computer Science I (a full year course) </item><item>Introduction to Computer Science II (a full year course)(More)